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ous; the humble equals to the lofty and proud ; the poor rich; the servant free; the mechanic noble.

How has the fair face of liberty become deformed; her fair fame blasted; her purity defiled; how has freedom become a slave; how is the daughter of heaven become a harlot!

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The prominent points in modern politics are, The spirit of Reform and Improvement; The spirit of Education; The importance given to Political Economy, or the Science of Money-making,--and its peculiar doctrine, that self-interest is both the main-spring and proper regulator of it; The encouragement of Manufactures, and Machinery; The separation of Religion from Civil Government; and the Sovereignty of the People. There is another principle which prevails in, and gives operation to all these other principles,— the spirit of Party, or Division. This is as fully acknowledged, as operative also and characteristic, as any of the rest.

The subject of Education and Knowledge is so important as to require to be treated under a separate head. The Sovereignty of the People has already met with some notice; and must present itself constantly in

connection with every other characteristic of our political state. The subject of our Commercial condition and principles will occupy the greater portion of our attention in the following Essays. The subjects which remain, and call for present observation, are Party Spirit, and the separation of Religion and Moral Character, as motives, from the springs of government.

It was left for experiment in a Christian country, to govern people without religion. All other nations of the world have been governed by the aid of religion ; but the modern governments have corrupted this palladium of their peace, or suffered it to grow corrupt,being indulged and over-assured by the possession of so inestimable a treasure;—and the keepers and users of it have been deposed successively from their high trust and privilege, and their dominion is taken away from them. But since Christianity has already a little leavened, and a little operated in the world, government has become a so much easier thing, that we are now about endeavouring to make experiment of governing independently of it:-not aware that our great support and strength is thence derived, and that we are mainly resting upon it. Wickedness must become more extreme in Christendom than elsewhere, because of the force of Christianity itself; the vital power of which will enable the body politic to bear a greater severity of disease without dissolution. Sin must grow stronger and stronger in its operations, and its efforts and language more audacious, with the very efforts and advances of religion, till at length it personally opposes and exalts itself against and above God himself, —

Christ Jesus, present, visible, incarnate,–in the person of Antichrist.

And then cometh the end: when Christ himself shall take the kingdom :—when religion shall rule; and be the only law and power and instrument of government. Then, and not till then, the government shall be at one with religion, and religion with the government, and the counsel of peace shall be between the king and the priest. Already the governments of the world seem to be preparing for this independent and sufficient reign of religion, when they are separating the religious authority and power off from themselves; while yet the country is resting for its chief support upon it. At the same time, and in consequence, the religious authorities and the hierarchy are asserting the prerogatives of their office; and preparing to exercise their high functions independent of, and unassisted by, the civil government.

In the meantime every form of secular government, upon secular and worldly principles, must be tried, and deposed for mal-administration. The monarchical form of government has been weighed, and found wanting.--The aristocratic form of government has been weighed, and is found wanting.—The democratic must also be weighed in its turn,-and this having been found wanting likewise, as also every other system and constitution founded upon and secured by worldly motives and counterpoises,—then the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and rule the world in peace and love, and according to true judgment.

Every form of human government has its use and

virtues; and its life is long or short according to the soundness of its principle. But the imperfection inherent in it works its ruin :—the evil principles of fallen human nature infect it with diseases ;-it grows from infancy to youth, from youth to ripeness, from ripeness to old age ;- the diseases gradually get more and more hold and power : till, with the decay of energy, the whole body tends to abuse and corruption, and becomes at length useless and disgusting. The monarchical form of government is the most durable.—The oligarchic is the next so.—The democratic never has endured for any long time together. The process of transition towards it may be gradual, and the work of time; but its essential element is changeableness; and its ultimate form can never be permanent. The greatest perfection of monarchical rule has been in China; where it is patriarchal; and is established and carried out in all its branches upon the principle of filial reverence and obedience :- which disposes by essential and necessary consequence to obedience to God, and the performance of brotherly duties to one another.* They enjoy the fulfilment of the promise to those who honour and obey parents, in the almost eternal duration of their empire.† The oligarchical and mixed governments of Europe are full of such essential principles of evil, that they each in turn become unbearable. The modern systems of government in Europe are founded in no principles of

* Almost the whole subject of their moral treatises is the obligation to the performance of “the relative (the social) duties," as they call them.

† Sir Geo. Rose's Scriptural Researches, 174--205.

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