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ledged very great increase of our wealth and capital, our revenue is more grudgingly paid and less easily raised than before this increase, and while the taxes were more numerous. What rich and luxurious nation ever made a good stand against a foreign army,or foreign money.

The richer and richer we are growing, the smaller and smaller the sum for which we should sell ourselves. *

Let a man try, and he will find, that the man is rich who lives somewhat below his income :- that he is happy, as regards the enjoyment of money, who has so much to spare, that he can be indulging from time to time in something new, and some occasional luxury. It is the same thing with the state. The country is rich and at ease, and fruitful in its resources, not which spends somewhat less than its actual revenue, but whose people in general live frugally, and within their incomes; —and that nation is poor, and in jeopardy, which, hav

* “ Thus fares the land by luxury betrayed,

In nature's simplest charms at first arrayed;
But verging to decline, its splendors rise,
Its vistas strike, its palaces surprise;
While scourged by famine from the smiling land,
The mournful peasant leads his humble band;
And while he sinks, without one arm to save,
The country blooms-a garden, and a grave.

“ Ye friends to truth, ye statesmen who survey
The rich man's joys increase, the poor's decay,
"Tis your's to judge how wide the limits stand,
Between a splendid and a happy land.”

Deserted Village.

ing the greater part of its revenue pledged to pay the interest of an overwhelming debt, and whose people requiring their whole, and more than their whole incomes to support their necessary expenses, and having their land deeply mortgaged, and being for the most part in debt, and at the same time being demoralized and debased by their luxurious living, and immersed in selfishness, would more readily sacrifice their credit and character than their habitual indulgences; and in a time of sudden calamity, expense, and depression, would refuse to raise and pay the necessary taxes, and the interest of their national debt, rather than relinquish a portion of their luxurious establishments. This is one of the steps in England towards national bankruptcy.

It may be said that all this is because it is an old country.-- That it is not the fault of the system; but that these are necessary evils and diseases, which must arise, when a populous country has become highly civilized. The fault is entirely in the system, which has indeed become ripe and rank, and not at all in the necessities of time and age apart from these inherent evils. The same evil is found wherever the same system and principles prevail; in the new as in the old world. The following is one account of the state of the mercantile world in the United States of America.

“ The history of whole streets in our mercantile cities is but a record of the rise and the downfall of their occupants. It is a melancholy reflection that such are the uncertainties attendant on commerce, and on mercantile affairs generally, that every six or seven years

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witness a complete revolution in the mercantile class of the community.”*

Neither is this confined, in the new world, to America. The same thing occurs from time to time, and is now existing to a great extent, in the recent colony of Sydney. The zeal and extravagance of over-trading, and inordinate speculation and competition, have brought that colony nearly to a state of bankruptcy. And this same operation must extend, and these effects and consequences must be felt, wherever the system of English trading shall extend and prevail ; and that is everywhere

All this is irrespective of the growth and increase of machinery; which has swallowed up and destroyed the fine trade and manufacture of India, and reduced a population more vast than our own manufacturing population to misery. This it has done in like manner in other places. And this it must do all over the world; till it shall swallow up and monopolize trade and handicraft over the whole face of the globe;-—and then it shall swallow up itself.

For England seems destined to prevail over all the nations of the globe, and to bring them down by a blind and adventitious strength and to bring them down upon her own head. They will voluntarily submit to her, and fornicate with her, while she has any beauty remaining in her; but in her age and

and decrepitude they will forsake her, and hate her, and strip her, and make her naked, and outcast and desolate.

Flushing Silk Journal, quoted Morning Herald, February 6, 1840. These things have since become worse in that country.

Selfishness and self-love, instead of leading us, as we are taught, to our best interests, can only lead us to turn every man his hand against his brother, and afterwards against himself. Self-love and avarice will blind us to our own true interests : will lead and impel us to turn our hands, first against each other, and then against our own throats,

ESSAY XIII.

ENGLAND IS SOWING THE PRINCIPLES OF EVIL IN

THE WORLD.

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NATIONS-IS REVIVING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

-THE COMMERCIAL PRINCIPLE--THE POWER OF MONEY-THE PRE

ROGATIVE OF TRADE-FRATERNITY OF TRADE AND MISSIONS-CIVI

LIZE FIRST THEN CHRISTIANIZE-THE MISSIONARY WILLIAMS--THE

CONTACT OF CIVILIZATION AND BARBARISM IS EXTERMINATING

COMMERCIAL BARBARISM--TYRANNY OF COMMERCE.

LET us not deceive ourselves into a confidence that things are materially altered by the recent change in political arrangements. It may lead to such an alteration. God speed and give fulfilment to the hope! But while the elements still exist which corrupt the system, and are growing in number and activity: while the season is approaching in which storms may be expected, and many signs prognosticate it, we ought not to be deceived into an expectation of settled weather, by a single gleam of sunshine. When the rain is falling all around us,and still more when we are enveloped in a mist or mountain cloud, - we cannot bring ourselves to be

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