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1816. July 1.

1816.

1829. 1816. Dec. 5. July 1.

1829. Dec. 5.

1816. July 1.

1829. 1816. Dec. 5. July 1.

1829. 1816. Dec. 5. July 1.

1829. 1816. Dec. 5. July 1.

1829. Dec. 5.

1829. Dec. 5.

July 1.

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Prices Current, exhibiting a Comparative View of the Relative Value of Bank Notes in 1816 and in 1829,

at various Places.

Boston.

New York.

Philadelphia.

Baltimore.

Washington.

Richmond.

Norfolk.

SPANISH DOLLARS, ....

184 adv par @ 18 adv.

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AMERICAN DOLLARS,

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17 adv.

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GOLD,........

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Boston Notes,
New YORK NOTES,

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71 @ 8 4 dis.a

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PHILADELPHIA NOTES,

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PENNSYLŇANÍA Notes,

11 dis.

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BALTIMORE Notes,.
MARYLAND Notes,...

VIRGINIA Notes,

74 adv.

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Dis. of Colum. NOTES,
N. Carolina Notes,..
S. CAROLINA NOTES,..

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GEORGIA NOTES,..

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

of THE - o

SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE,

SAMUEL ADAMS.

The memories of few men will perhaps be cherished, by their posterity, with a more jealous and grateful admiration than those of the patriotic individuals who first signed the political independence of our country. They hazarded by the deed not only their lands and possessions, but their personal freedom and their lives; and when it is considered that most of them were in the vigor of existence, gifted with considerable fortunes, and with all the offices and emoluments at the disposal of royalty within their reach, the sacrifice which they risked appears magnified, and their disinterested patriotism more worthy of remembrance. Although many of them can rest their sole claim to lasting distinction upon the one great act with which they were adventitiously connected, still their lives present a valuable transcript of the times in which they lived, and afford examples of inflexible honesty, heroic decision, and noble energy of mind, quite as interesting as any records of the eccentricities of genius, or the grasping efforts of ambition.

Not one of the least ardent and uncompromising assertors of the rights and liberties of his country, was the subject of our present sketch — SAMUEL ADAMs. This gentleman, descended from a respectable family, which emigrated to America with the first settlers of the land, was born at Quincy, in Massachusetts, September 22d, 1722. In 1736, he became a member of Harvard College, and took his degree of master in 1743. On this latter occasion, he proposed the following question, in which he maintained the affirmative : “Whether it be lawful to resist the supreme magistrate, if the commonwealth cannot be otherwise preserved.”

On quitting the university, he commenced the study of the law; but soon afterwards, at the request of his mother, became a clerk in the counting-house of Thomas Cushing, at that time an eminent merchant. The genius of Adams was not suited to commercial pursuits. His devotion to politics, and his interest in the welfare of his country, diverted his attention from his own business concerns; and he retired from his mercantile connections poorer by far than when he entered into them. In 1763, when a committee was appointed by the people of Boston to remonstrate against the taxation of the colonies by the British ministry, the instructions of that committee were drawn by Mr. Adams, and gave a powerful proof of his ability and zeal. He soon became an influential leader in the popular assemblies, and was bold in denouncing the oppressive acts of the mother country.

In 1765, he was chosen a representative to the General Court of the state, from the town of Boston. Here he soon made himself conspicuous, and became clerk of the legislative body. About this time, he was the author of several spirited essays, and plans of resistance to the exactions of the British ministry. He suggested the first Congress at New York, which was a step to the establishment of a Continental Congress, ten years after.

In 1770, two regiments of troops were quartered in the town of Boston, apparently to superintend the conduct of the inhabitants. This measure roused the public indignation to the utmost, and soon gave occasion to a quarrel between a party of soldiers and citizens, in which eleven of the latter were killed or wounded by a guard under the command of Captain Preston. This rencontre, which is well known under the name of the “Boston Massacre,” and will long remain memorable as the first instance of bloodshed between the British and Americans, did not tend to allay the excitement caused by the presence of the troops. On the following morning, a meeting of the citizens was called, and Samuel Adams first rose to address the assembly. His style of eloquence was bold and impressive, and few could exercise a more absolute control over the passions of a multitude. A committee, of which he was ol.was chosen to wait upon Governor

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Hutchinson, with a request that the troops might be instantly removed. The governor replied that the troops were not under his command; but Adams, with his usual intrepidity, would brook no prevarication or excuse, and declared that if he permitted them to remain, it would be at his peril. The governor, alarmed at the personal danger which threatened him, finally consented to the demand, and further hostilities were, for a time, suspended. The injudicious management of his private affairs rendered Mr. Adams poor. When this was known in England, it was proposed to bribe him, by the gift of some lucrative office. A suggestion of the kind being made to Governor Hutchinson, he replied, that “such was the obstinacy and inflexible disposition of the man, that he could never be conciliated by any office or gift whatever.” A higher compliment could not have been paid him. The offer, however, was made, it is said, and rejected. About the year 1773, Governor Gage renewed the experiment. Colonel Felton waited upon Mr. Adams, with the assurance of Governor Gage, that any benefit he might ask would be conferred on him, on condition that he would forsake the popular faction; while, at the same time, significant threats were thrown out of the consequences which might ensue, if he persisted in his opposition to the measures of the ministry. The reply of the undaunted patriot was characteristic: “Go tell Governor Gage,” said he, “that my peace has long since been made with the King of kings; and that it is the advice of Samuel Adams to him, no longer to insult the feelings of an already exasperated people.” Under the irritation produced by this answer, Governor Gage issued a proclamation, which comprehended the following language: “I do hereby, in his majesty's name, offer and promise his most gracious pardon to all persons who shall forthwith lay down their arms, and return to the duties of peaceable subjects; excepting only from the benefits of such pardon SAMUEL ADAMs and John HANcock, whose offences are of too flagitious a nature to admit of any other consideration but that of condign punishment.” Mr. Adams was a member of the first Continental Con

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