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quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped, in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number cannot safely be spared out of the same ; in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many of such extra number as they judge can safely be spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled.
The United States in congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine states assent to the same; nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the United States in congress assembled.
The congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months; and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secresy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shall be entered on the
journal when it is desired by any delegate; and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their request, shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several states.
ART. 10. The committee of the states, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute in the recess of congress, such of the powers of congress as the United States
in congress assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall, from time to time, think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine states in the congress of the United States assembled is requisite.
Art. 11. Canada, acceding to this confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted
into, and entitled to, all the advantages of this union : but no other colony shall be admitted into the same unless such admission be agreed to by nine states.
ART. 12. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed, debts contracted, by or under the authority of congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.
Art. 13. Every state shall abide by the determination of the United States in congress assembled, on all questions which, by this confederation, are submitted to them. And the articles of this confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the union shall be perpetual;
any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislature of every state.
And whereas it has pleased the Great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in congress, to approve of and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual union: KNOW YE, That we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do, by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained; and we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in congress assembled, on all questions which, by the said con
federation, are submitted to them; and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent; and that the union shall be
perpetual. In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands, in
congress. Done at Philadelphia, in the state of Penn
sylvania, the ninth day of July, in the year of our Lord - one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight, and in
the third year of the independence of America,
On the part and behalf of the state of New Hampshire. Josiah Bartlet,
John Wentworth, jun., August 8, 1778. On the part and behalf of the state of Massachusetts Bay. John Hancock,
Francis Dana, Samuel Adams,
James Lovell, Elbridge Gerry,
Samuel Holten. on then part and in behalf of the state of Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations. William Ellery,
John Collins. Henry Marchant,
On the part and behalf of the state of Connecticut. Roger Sherman,
Titus Hosmer, Samuel Huntington,
Andrew Adams. Oliver Wolcott,
On the part and behalf of the state of New-York. Jas. Daane,
Wm. Duer, Fra. Lewis,
Gouv. Morris. or! On the part and in behalf of the state of New-Jersey. Jno. Witherspoon,
Nath. Scudder, Nov. 26. 1778. On the part and behalf of the state of Pennsylvania, Robt. Morris
William Clingan, Daniel Roberdeau,
Joseph Reed, 220 July, 1778. Jona. Bayard Smith,
On the part and behalf of the state of Delaware. Tho. M'Kean, Feb. 13, 1779, Nicholas Van Dyke. John Dickinson, May 5th, 1779,
On the part and behalf of the state of Maryland. John Hanson, March 1, 1781. Daniel Carroll, March 1, 1781.
On the part and behalf of the state of Virginia. Richard Henry Lee,
Jno. Harvie, John Banister,
Francis Lightfoot Lee. Thomas Adams,
On the part and behalf of the state of North-Carolina. John Penn, July 21, 1778,
Jno. Williams. Corns. Harnett,
On the part and behalf of the state of South-Carolina. Henry Lanrens,
Richard Hutson, William Henry Drayton,
Thos. Heywood, jun. Jno. Mathews,
On the part and behalf of the state of Georgia, Jno. Walton, 24th July, 1778. Edwd. Langworthy. Edwd. Telfair,
(NOTE_From the circumstance of delegates from the same state having signed the articles of confederation at different times, as appears by the dates, it is probable they affixed their names as they happened to be present in congress, after they had been authorized by their constituents.]
[The above articles of confederation continued in force until the 4th day of March, 1789, when the constitution of the United States took effect.]