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of all great cities live in habits of comparative ease and lux, : ury with those in the country, (and particularly so when the word was introduced,) Mr. Douce's solution appears extremely probable. At present we seldom hear it applied except in a playful way. Indeed the writers for newspapers annually indulge in witticisms upon the efforts of the Londoners in sporting, when the first day of September arrives; and describe, with no small degree of whimsicality, the supposed mistakes of the cockney in shooting cats for hares, tame ducks for wild, pigs, dogs, and poultry for game; and, to complete the whole, one is made to kill an owl, which he imagined to be a nondescript; but is afterwards convinced, to the dread of his eternal punishment, it was nothing less than a cherubim. . It is astonishing what prejudices existed in the minds of many respecting tobacco. King James I. wrote a pamphlet against it, called the Counter-blast to Tobacco; which he concludes by pronouncing the use of this plant to be “a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, and, in the black, stinking füme thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bottomless.??


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WHIG AND TORY. 1.-" This year (says Hume; Hist. Eng. 1680,) is remarkble for being the epoch of the well-known epithets of Whig and Tory, by which, and sometimes without any material difference, this island has been so long divided. The court party reproached their antagonists with their affinity to the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, who were known by the name of Whigs : The country party found a resemblance between the courtiers and popish handitti in Ireland, to whom the appellation of Tory was affixed. And after this manner, these foolish terms of reproach came into public and general use; and even at present, seem not nearer their end

than when they were first invented.” . 11.--Mr. Laing takes no notice of the term Tory,--but of

Whig, he gives the following as the origin :

- 4“ Argyle and Lothian had begun an insurrection in the

Highlands," and so forth. “ The expedition was termed the Whigamores' inroad, from a word employed by these western peasants in driving horses ; and the name, transferred in the succeeding reign to the opponents of the court, is still preserved and cherished by the Whigs, as the genuise det scendants of the covenenting Scots."*

III.--Bailey, in his dictionary, gives the following :* “Whig (Sax.) whey, butter-milk, or very small beer,"


A Whig-first applied to those in Scotland who kept their meetings in the fields, their common food being sourmilk,-a nick-name given to those who were against the court interest in the time of King Charles and James II., and to such as were for it in succeeding reigns.” :. With regard to Tory, he says, , = “ A word first used by the Protestants in Ireland, to signify those Irish common robbers and murderers, who stood outlawed for robbery and murder ; now a nickname to such as call themselves bigh church men, or to the partizans of the Chevaller de St. George." . .'.'

IV.-Johnson, again, has “ Whig (Sax.) 1. Whey.2. The name of a faction,”—and as to Tory, he supposes it to be derived from an Irish word, signifying a savage.-“ One who adheres to the ancient constitution of the state, and the apostolical hierarchy of the church of England opposed to a Whig.

Torbhee is the Irish appellation for a person who seizes by force, and without the intervention of law, what, whether really so or not, he alleges to be his property.

1. * For a further account of the term “ Whigamore," see Burnet, as quoted in Johnson's Dictionary. it la different parts of Scotland the terın Whig is still commonly applied to a sort of sour liquid which is obtained from inilk or cream. The Whig is taken from cream after it has been collected six or eight days for a kirning, and is drawn off by a spiggot from the bottom of the cask or can.-It is also taken froin sour-milk, when in a coagulated state, or what the Scotch call laypert milk, being merely the thin watery substance which is separated from the curd on stirring it about. The Whig, both of sour-milk and cream, is extremely tart to the taste. It is not, so far as we know, used in any way for food by the common people. Might not this term have been first applied to the covenanters, in derision of their austere manners and unpalutable opinions ?

V.-Daniel Defoe, in No. 75, of Vol. vii. of his " Review of the British Nation,' (1709,) gives the following history of these terms :

“ The word Tory is Irish, and was first made use of in Ireland, in the time of Elizabeth's wars there. It signified a kind of robbers, who heing listed in neither army, preyed in general upon their country, without distinction of English or Irish.

“ In the Irish massacre in 1641, you had them in great numbers, assisting in every thing that was bloody and villanous, and particularly when humanity prevailed upon some of the Papists to preserve Protestant relations; these were such as chose to butcher brothers and sisters, fathers and mothers, and dearest friends and nearest relations, and these were called Tories.

“ In England, about the year 1680, a party of men appeared among us, who, though pretended Protestants, yet applied themselves to the ruin and destruction of their country. They quickly got the name of Tories. Their real godfather who gave them the name, was Titus Oates ; and the occasion as follows: the author of this happened to be present. There was a meeting of some people in the city, upon the occasion of the discovery of some attempt to stifle the evidence of the witnesses (about the popish plot,) and tampering with Bedlow and Stephen Dugdale. Among tho discourse, Mr. Bedlow said he had letters from Ireland, that there were some Tories to be brought over hither, who were privately to murder Dr. Oates and the said Bedlow.

“ The Doctor, whose zeal was very hot, could never hear any man talk after this against the plot, or against the witnesses, but he thought he was one of these Tories, and called almost every man who opposed him in discourse a Tory, till at last the word Tory became popular, and they owned it, just as they do now the name High-flyer.

" As to the word Whig it is Scots. The use of it began there, when the western men, called Cameronians, took arms frequently for their religion, Whig was a word used in those parts for a kind of liquor the western Highlandmen used to drink, the composition of which I do not remember, .but so became common to these people who drank it. These men took up arms about the year 1681, being the insurrection at Bothwell Bridge. The Duke of Monmouth, then in favour here, was sent against them by King Charles, and defeated them. At his return, instead of thanks for his good service, he found himself ill-treated for using them mercifully. And Lauderdale told Charles, with an oath, that the Duke had been so civil to the Whigs, because he was a Whig himself in his heart. This made it a court word, and in a little while all the friends and followers of the Duke began to be called Whigs; and they, as the other party did by the word Tory, took it freely enough to themselves.”


The term Check-mate, arose from the Persian schah-mat, and was introduced by the Moors into Europe, and by them delivered to the Spaniards, with the game of chess; for, in the Persian, schah signifies a king, and mat, slaughter; to which latter also the Hebrew agrees.

WATER COMPANIES. - There is not a city in the world which is so well supplied with that most essential article of domestic use, water, as London. The most remote parts of the metropolis are supplied with it regularly and in abundance, and at a price that is by no means high. In Paris, at the present day, the water is carried about the streets by men employed for the purpose; and a recent attempt to remedy this evil by the establishment of a Water Company has not been success. ful. Paris is therefore two centuries behind us in this respect. Various have been the methods of furnishing London with water at different periods. The foreign merchants who traded to London not having the privilege of landing their goods, were obliged to sell them on board the ships, until the year 1236, when they purchased the privilege of housing their woad, by paying annually to the city, the sum of fifty marks, and giving one hundred pounds towards the bringing of water from Tyburn to the city, which was soon after put in execution by bringing water from six fountains or wells in that neighbourhood, in a leaden pipe of six inches bore to the city.

In 1438, Sir William Eastfield, Knight of the Bath, and mayor of the city, brought water from Tyburn and High

bury Barn to London, and caused conduits to be erected in Fleet Street, Aldermanbury, and at Cripplegate ; and in 1535, the common council of the city granted two-fifteenths, for defraying the expense of bringing water from Hackney to Aldgate, where a convenient conduit was erected for it on the south side of the street just without the gate, which proved very useful to the inhabitants in the eastern parts of the city. It was still found that there was not a sufficient quantity of water to supply the common demands of the city, and therefore an application was made to Parliament to empower the mayor and corporation to bring it from Hampstead-Heath, St. Mary-le-bone, Hackney, and Muswell Hill, upon their indemnifying the ownors of lands where they should be obliged to dig or build; this privilege was granted in the thirty-fifth of Henry viii.

In 1546, two-fifteenths were granted by the common council for bringing water from Hoxton fields, and for erecting a conduit in Lothbury. These conduits were now become pretty general in different parts of the city, which were supplied from others at a distance; the most famous of these was Lamb's Conduit, which is thus noticed by Stowe :

“ There lyeth a streete from Newgate west to the end of Turnagaine Lane, and winding north to Oldbourne Conduit. This conduit by Oldbourne Cross was first builded 1498. Thomasin, widow to Jolin Percival, mayor, gave to the second making thereof 20. markes ; Richard Shore, ten pounds; Thomas Kneesworth and others, did also give towards it. But of late a new conduit was there builded in place of the old; namely in the yeare 1577, by William Lambe, sometime a gentleman of the chapel to King Henry the Eight, and afterwards a citizen and cloth Worker of London; the water thereof be caused to be conveyed in lead from divers springs to one head, and from thence to the gaid conduit, and waste of one cocke at Oldbourne Bridge, more than two thousand yards in length.”

And speaking of Mr. William Lambe, who died in 1577 he says,

"Neere unto Holborne he founded a faire conduit and a standard with a cocke at Holborne Bridge, to convey thence the waste. These were begun the six-and-twentieth day of March, 1577, and the water carried along in pipes of lead more than two thousand yards, all at his own costs and charges, amounting to the sum of fifteene hundred pounds, and the worke fully finished the foure-and-twentieth of August in the same yeere.”

And to ascertain more precicely the situation of this edifice, he further says, that from

" The west side of the conduit is the highway, there called Snor

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