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(now Snow)Hill, stretching out by Oldbourne Bridge, over the water to Turnmill Brook,* and so up to Oldbourne Hill.”

The conduit at Holborn Bridge is believed to have been destroyed in the fire of London, which is known to have extended as far as Cow Lane; if so, it must have been rebuilt, for it is noticed by Hatton as being in existence in his day : “ Lamb's Conduit,” says he, " at the north end of Red Lion Street, near the fields affords plenty of water clear as chrys'tal, which is chiefly used for drinking, It belongs to St. Sepulcre's parish, the fountain head being under à stone marked S. S. P. in the vacant ground, a little southward of Ormond Street, where the water comes in a drain to this conduit, and it runs thence in lead pipes to the conduit on Snow Hill, which has the figure of a Lamb upon it, denoting its water comes from Lamb's Conduit.''t. • In 1582, one Peter Maurice, a German Engineer proposed to the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, the erecting a machine in the river Thames for raising water, for the more effectual supply of the city; which being approved of, he erected the same in the river near London Bridge. This curious machine, which raised water to such a height as to supply the uppermost rooms of the loftiest buildings, was the first of the kind ever seen in England! and one not being sufficient, others were added.

In 1594, a large horse engine of four pumps was erected at Broken Wharf, in Thames Street, by Bevis Bulmar, for the convenience of the inhabitants in the western parts, but it was afterwards laid aside on account of the expence of working it.

Before a method was found of conveying water by wooden pipes into the streets of London, and from thence by pipes of lead into the several houses, the inhabitants had no other means of supply than by fetching it from the conduits, or paying men who made it their business to bring it from ihence. One of these persons we find characterised by the name of Cob, a water bearer in Ben Jonson's comedy in • Every Man in his Humour;" the vessels they brought it in were called Tankards, and held about three gallons; they were hooped round like a pail, and in figure were a frustum

* The Fleet River was formerly called the Wells, and afterwards Turnmill Brook, on account of the many Mills erected on it.

+ Hatton's New View of London, p. 789.

of a cone, they had a small iron handle at the upper end like that of an alehouse pot, and being filled with a cork bung or stopple, were easily portable on the shoulders of a man. One of these vessels is still used in the representation of the above comedy. As the last instance in remembrance of their actual use, the following may be relied on:

About the year 1730, Mr. James Colebrook, (from whom the present baronet is descended,) a very wealthy man and a banker, had a shop nearly adjoining to the Antwerp tavern, behind the Royal Exchange. Opposite thereto, and against the wall of the church of St. Bennet Fink, was a spring of water with a pump, from which a porter, employed to open, and also to water and sweep, the shop, every morning duly at eight o'clock, fetched water in such a tankard as is above described. There were also women whose em. ployment it was to carry water from the conduit in pails, a more commodious vessel for a woman's use than a tankard ; this may be inferred from Lamb's gist, before mentioned, to poor women, of 120 pails to carry water...

It is painful to reflect that the individual who first stepped forward to render so essential a service to the metropolis as a cheap and abundant supply of water, should have been ruined in the enterprize; yet such was the case with Sir Hugh Middleton, who, in projecting and finishing the New River, reaped no other reward than an impoverished fortune and an empty title.

“ During the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and James I. acts of Parliament had been obtained for the better supplying of the metropolis with water; but the enterprize seemed too great for any individual, or even for the city collectively to venture upon, until Mr. Hugh Middleton, a native of · Denbigh, and goldsmith of London, offered to begin the work. The court of Common Council accepted his offer; and having vested him with ample powers, this gentleman, with a spirit equal to the importance of the undertaking, at his own risk and charge began the work. He had not proceeded far when innumerable and unforseen difficulties presented themselves. The art of civil engineering was then little understood in this country, and he experienced many obstructions, from the occupiers and proprietors of the lands, through which he was under the necessity of conducting this stream.”

3. The distance of the springs of Amwell and Chadwell, whence the water was to be brought, is twenty miles from London; but it was found necessary in order to avoid the eminences and valleys in the way, to make it run a course of more than thirty-eight miles. “ The depth of the trench,” says Stowe, “in some places, descended full thirty feet, if hot more; whereas, in other places, it required as sprightfull arte againe to mount it over a valley, in a trough between a couple of hills, and the trough all the while borne up by wooden arches, some of thein fixed in the ground very deepe, and rising in height above twenty-three foot.” - The industrious projector soon found himself so harassed and impeded by interested persons, in Middlesex and in Hertfordshire, that he was obliged to solicit a prolongation of the time to accomplish his undertaking. This the city granted, but they refused to interest themselves in this great and usesul work, although Mr. Middleton was quite impoverished by it. He then applied, with more success, to the King hiniself. who, upon a moity of the concern being made over to him, agreed to pay half the expense of the work already incurred, as well as of the future. It now went on without interruption, and was finished according to Mr. Middleton's original agreement with the city; when, on the 29th of Septenibir, 1613, the water was let into the bason, now called the New River Head, which was prepared for its reception.

By an exact admeasurement of the conrse of the New River, taken in 1723, it appeared to be nearly thirty-nine miles in length; it has between two and three hundred bridges over it, and upwards of forty sluices in its course; and in divers parts, both over and under the same, considerable currents of land waters, as well as a great number of brooks and rivulets, have their passage.. • This great undertaking cost half a million of money, and was the ruin of its first projector, some of whose descendants have received a paltry annuity of 201. from the city, that was so much benefitted by the work by which they were rendered destitute, · The property of the New River is divided into seventytwo shares; for the first nineteen years after the finishing of the work, the annual profit upon each share scarcely amounted to twelve shillings. A share is 'now consider

ed to be worth 11,5001. and they have been sold as high as 14,0001.

Several other water companies have since been established, which have contributed much to the comfort and convenience of the metropolis, and although several attempts at monopoly have been made, yet they have met with a proper resistence in the legislature.. :


(Concluded from page 136.)

TRISTAN AND ISALDA. . Thus far all went well, till one day, the king, the queen, Sir Caynis, Sir Tristan, and his lady, were riding in the fields about the city. Isalda's horse by chance stepped into a deep rut, filled with water, which water in an instant rose beneath her garments above her ancle, and she exclaimed, • Water, water, you are bold to venture so far beneath my clothes, where the eye of a knight has never ventured.' This was only murmered and without any purpose, but it was unfortunately overheard by her' brother, who by dint of questioning soon got at the truth, which he hastened to communi. cate to his father. Both agreed that they were insulted by Sir Tristan's neglect of. Isalda; but what were they to do? the knight's services were of too recent a date to allow any thoughts of vengeance. Sir Caynis, therefore, was obliged to content himself with renouncing Sir Tristan's friendship and loading him with reproaches; these, Sir Tristan would not at first allow to have been deserved on his part, but finda ing the truth was too well known to be set aside by any denial, he even made a frank confessiou of the fact, which however, he defended, throwing the whole blame of the bus siness on his bride. How can that be?' said the wondering Sir Caynis. “No,' replied the other, that I must not tell you, lest you should take offence.'— Speak on,' quoth Sir Caynis; I will not be offended thereat.'- Well, then; said Tristan, since you permit it, I will tell you. Your sister, Isalda, has not deserved of me that I should love her but do not be angry till you hear farther. There is a lady, a queen, who, for my sake, loves my hound, and more dearly than your sister loves me. If you will follow me, I will bring you to the place where you may hear and see it.'

This being acceded to on the brother's part, the knights set out for Cornwal, where they were welcomed at the castle of Duke Thinas, the trusty friend of our lovers. To him Sir Tristan told his tale in priyate, entreating him that he would go to Isalda, and say his life was in her hands. • Tell her,' he continued, that thus, and thus only I can be saved; let her request the king, my uncle, to go out on a hunting party towards the meadows of Blankenland. She too must be there with all her attendants, carrying the dog in all honour and splendour-let her do this, or I die.'

Away rode Duke Thinas to the queen, who no sooner heard her lover's wishes, than she hastened to obey them, and persuaded the king to the chase in Blankenland. Early in the morning all set out for the meadows in as much splendour as if it had been for a wedding. First came the king's cooks and household servants ; next the huntsmen with many hounds; then the royal carriages, loaded with refreshments; after these the king himself surrounded by his best knights ; these were followed by the ladies, each of whom had a knight to her companion, and thus they walked two and two in measured state. When Sir Caynis saw the beautiful Brangele, he imagined her to be the queen, and scarcely could believe the words of his brother-in-law, who protested that she was to the queen no more than a dark cloud is to the sun.

Now passed over two palfreys, drawing a small car, most splendidly adorned with gold and jewels. “What means this? said Sir Caynis. • That,' replied Tristan, ‘ is the dog which I gave to my lady, and which she uses thus for my sake.' When Sir Caynis heard this he allowed that his brother-in-law had truly spoken, but when he saw the queen, and how beautiful she was beyond the beauty of all other women, and how she fondled the dog from love to Sir Tristan, he exclained, I see even more than you told me, and allow that you have not been so used by my sister.

But if the queen was admirable for her beauty, she was no less so for her wit. As she passed by the bush in which her lover was concealed, she addressed the birds that sang from the trees of the forest, saying, “Oh my dear little songsters, sweet is the sound of your voices. Now let me bribe you by rich gists to Ay after me to Blankenland to the arbour and there sing to me throughout the nighi.' By this she gave Sir Tristan to understand that she expected him, in especta.

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