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lingly take a little time to consider of it; because, if you do any thing in this way, you would like to do something handsome.". This puts by the demand for the present, and before the solicitors call again, inform yourself.of all cir. cumstances of the intended situation, constitution, government, qualification of patients, and the like; then, when all is fixed, if you learn that it is to be placed in the fields, “ You think it would have been much better in the city, or nearer to the poor, and more at hand to relieve them in case of accidents and other distresses ; and besides, we have already hospitals enough in the fields." 'If in the city, “You can only approve of the fields on account of the purer air, so necessary for the sick." "If they propose to take in all poor patients from whatever quarter they come, “ You (hink it too general, and that every county, at least, ought to take care of its own." If it is limited to the poor of the city or county,' “ You disapprove of its narrowness; for charity and benevolence, like rain and sunshine, should be extended to all the human race.” 'While the collectors are endeavouring to remove these prejudices, you ply them with other objections of the like kind, relating to the constitution and management; and it is odds but some of your argumenus appear strong and unanswerable, even to the advocates for the project themselves, they will be sorry, that things are now settled in a different way, and leave you with a high opinion of your understanding, though they get none of your money.
The second rule is to like some other charity better. Thus if they come to you for a contribution to the Magdalenhouse, “ You approve rather of the Asylum, it being much easier in your opinion to prevent vice than to cure it." In they apply for the Asylum, then, “What money you can spare for such purposes, you intend for the Magdalen-house; the very name reminding you, that the conversion of prostitutes is a good and practicable work; but the necessity or utility of the Asylum does not appear so clear to you." Again, suppose your subscription asked for the Lying-inhospital : then “ You should like one that would be more on an extensive plan, and take in single as well as married women; for very worthy young persons may unfortunately need the convenience of such an Hospital, and the saving a character you looķ upon to be almost as meritorious, as the säving ay life. But if such a general Hospital bé proposed, then “ You approve highly of the married women's: Hospital, and doubt whether a general-one would not rather be an encouragement to lewdness and debauchery?" One instance more will be sufficient on this head. Suppose they urge you for a subscription to clothe the poor French prisoners ; you are then to say, that, Charity to be sure is a good thing, but charity begins at home; we have, beside our own common poor, who are crying for bread in the streets, many modest housekeepers and families pining for want, who, you think, should first be provided for before we. give our substance to those that would cut our throats.” Or, « You are of opinion the brave fellows that fight for us, and are now exposed to the hardships of a winter campaign, should be first comforted; or the widows and children of those who have died in our service be taken care of.” But should a subscription be proposed to you for these purposes, " You are then of opinion that the care of our own people is the business and duty of the Government, which is enabled, by the taxes we pay, to do all - that is necessary ; but the poor French prisoners, deserted by their prince and country, have only our charity to rely on; common humanity points them out as proper objects of beneficence ; and besides, to visit the prisoner, to clothe the naked, be kind to the stranger, and do good to our enemies, are duties among the strongest required by Christianity.”,-. :
The third rule is, to insinuate, (but without saying it in plain térms,) that you either will contribute, or have already contributed handsomely,'' though you do not subscribe. This is done by intimating, ** That you highly approve of the thing, but have made a resolution that your name shall never appear in a list of subscribers on such occasions ; for that the world, you find, is-apt to be very censorious; and if they see that a man has not given according to their ideas of his ability, and the importance of the occasion, they say he is mean and niggardly : or if by giving liberally he seems to have set them an example they do not care to follow, then they charge him with vanity and ostentation, and hint, that from motives of that kind he does much more than is suitable to his circumstances.". And then you add, that “ Your subscribing or openly giving is not at all necessary; for that as bankers are nominated to receive contributions, and many
have already sent in their mites, and any one may send in what they please, you suppose a few guineas from a person unknown would do as much good as if his name was in the list.”. This will entitle you to the credit of any one of the sums by an unknown hand, or by N. N. or X. Y. Y. which soever they may. think fit to ascribe to you..
The reason why I would not have you say, in plain terms, that you have given, or will give, when you really have not, or do not intend it, is, -that, I would have you incur trespasses no more than debts, unnecessarily, and be as frugal of your sins as of your money; for you may have occasion for a lie in some other; affair, at some other time, when you cannot serve your turn by an evasion.
Thus, my son would I have you exercise the great privi. lege.you are endowed with, that of being a reasonable creature; to wit, a creature capable of finding or making a reason for doing or not doing any thing, as may best suit its interest or its inclinations. - And so, referring other instructions to future letters, I recommend the rules contained in this, as worthy your closest attention; for, they are not the, airy speculations of a theorist, but solid advices drawn from the practise of wife and able men. Rules by the help of which, I myself, though I lived many years in great business, and with some reputation as a man of wealth, have ever decently avoided parting with a farthing to those modish plunderers; nor can I recollect, i that, during my whole life, I have ever given any thing in charity, except once, (God forgive me!) a halfpenny to a blind man--for doing me an errand. iii, 7.,!! ; . I am, my dear Son,
. Your affectionate Father, trei..
I.- A gentleman having been revelling abroad, was returning home late at night ; but overcome with wine, he felt down in the street, and Jay there in a state of insensibility. Soon after two persons who were passing having quarrelled, one of them observing that the drunkard had a sword by his side, snatched it away, and with it run his adversary through the body. Leaving the instrument sticking in the wound, he ran off as fast as he could. When the watehman of the night came in the course of his rounds to the scene of this tragedy, and saw one man lying dead with a sword in his body, and another lying near him in a state of drunkenness, with his scabbard empty, he had no doubt but the crime and the offender were both before him; and-seizing the drunkard, he conveyed him to prison. i . siri
" Next morning he was examined before a magistrate; and being unable to remove the strong presumptions which circumstances established against him, he was committed for trial. When tried, he was found guilty; and immediately 'executed for the murder of which he was perfectly innocent.
The real criminal was some time after condemned to death for another offence; and in his last moments confessed how he had made use of the reveller's sword to execute his own **private revenge. ' tte. . . ] ...! 'm only
II.--An upholsterer of the name of William Shaw, who was residing at Edinburgh in the year 1721, had a daughter, Catherine, who lived with him, and who encouraged the ad. dresses of John Lawson, a jeweller, contrary to the wishes of her father, who had insuperable objections against him, and urged his daughter to receive the addresses of a son of Alexander Robertson, a friend and neighbour. The girl refused most peremptorily. The father grew enraged. Passionate expressions arose on both sides, and the words, barbarity, cruelty, and death,' were frequently pronounced by the daughter. At length her father left her," locking the door after him. .
The apartment of Shaw was only divided by a slight partition from that of one Morrison, a watch case maker, who had indistinctly heard the conversation and quarrel between Catherine Shaw and her father; and was particularly struck with the words she had pronounced so emphatically. For some time after the father had gone out all was silent : but presently Morrison heard several groans from the daughter. He called in some of the neighbours; and these listening attentively, not only heard the groans, but also her faintly exclaim,“ Cruel father, thou' art the cause of my death! Struck with this, they got a constable, and forced the door of Shaw's apartment, where they found the daughter weltering in her blood, and a knife by her side. She was alive and speechless; but on questioning her as to owing
her" death to her father, she was just able to make a mom tion with her head, apparently in the affirmative, and then expired. to
.. . At this moment Shaw enters the room. All eyes are upon him !. He sees his neighbours and a constable in his apartment, and seems much disordered; but at the sight of his daughter he turns pale, trembles, and is ready to sink. The first surprise and the succeeding horror leave little doubt of his guilt in the breast of the beholders; and even that little is done away, on the constable discovering that the shirt of William Shaw is blondy..... · He was instantly hurried before a magistrate, and upon the deposition of the parties, committed for trial. In vain did he protest his innocence, and declare that the blood on his shirt was occasioned by his having blooded himself some days before, and the bandage having become untied. The , circumstances appeared so strong against him, that he was found guilty, was executed, and hung in chains at Leith, His last words were, “ I am innocent of my daughter's murder... .....
There was scarcely a person in Edinburgh who thought the father innocent, but in the following year a man who had become the occupant of Shaw's apartment, accidentally discovered a paper which had fallen into a cavity on one side of the chimney. It was folded as a letter, and on opening it, was found to contain as foHows: “ Barbaraus father! your cruelty in having put it out of my power ever to join my fate to that of the only man I could love, and tyrannically insisting upon my marrying one whom I always hated, has made me form a resolution to put an end to an existence which is become a burthen to me.”
This letter was signed, “ CATHERINE Shaw;" and on being shewn to her relations and friends, it was recognized as her writing. The magistracy of Edinburgh examined it, and on being satisfied of its authenticity, they ordered the body of William Shaw to be taken from the gibbet, and given to his family for interment; and as the only reparation to his memory, and the honour of his surviving relations, they caused a pair of colours to be waved over his grave, in token of his innocence.
III.-- In the year 1736, Mr. Hayes, a gentleman of fortune, in travelling, stopt at aning in Oxfordshire kept by