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the meaning of these symbols is gradually obscured, till at last their intent is utterly perverted; what was at first a reasonable type, becomes an absurd superstition, the symbol itself is worshipped instead of the essence it is intended to represent. Thus Pan, which was no more than an eniblem of the creative powers, was transformed into a Deity, though even then his horns and general adjuncts bore some relation to his origin. Thus too, the Grecian mode of burning bodies, and the Christian mode of burying them in the earth, each proceed from a similar principle.
In regard to bells, they were also attached to the sacred robe of the Jewish High Priest ; these were of the pyramidal form before mentioned, and for the same reason. In Exodus, chap. xx. ver. 33. we read,
" And beneath upon the hem of it (i.e the hem of the High Priest's robe) thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about it.
“A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about.
" And it shall be upon Aaron to minister ; and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not."
Something similar to our Passing Bell seems to have existed amongst the Lacedemonians, who, on the death of their Kings, were accustomed to beat a Pan or Kettle drum. The object of either was originally the same; the Kettle-drum of the Lacedemonians and the Passing Bell of the Christians alike typified in their sound the dissolution and re-admixture of the elements with earth, till superstition lent her aid, and the symbol was looked upon as a reality, as a thing of holiness, by which the evil dæmons might be driven away from the departing spirit. Why we still retain the Passing Bell it is not easy to say, since both reasons for its use have ceased, but custom is a dreadful tyrant, to whose sceptre fools bow because they are fools, and wise men for the sake of quiet.
· But the Greeks and Jews did not transmit to us the bell only; even the rattle has found its way amongst Christians, and figures not a little amongst the rites of witchcraft ; thus in Ben Junson's Masque of Queens the speakers of the fifth charm say,
“ The sticks are across,
The sage is rotten,
Follow it then with our rattles' sound.' This inquiry might be carried still farther; many, very many, of our most simple country customs that to all appearance have no meaning whatever, will be found in like manner to have had a rational and well-founded origin; but the subject is rather of too grave a nature for a work like this, and what has been already done seems scarcely within its limits.
John Andrew Gordier was born at Jersey, in the early part of the 18th century. He was a respectable and wealthy young man, of inoffensive life, and correct manners. Having been attached for several years to a beautiful and accomplished young woman, in the Island of Guernsey, he had surmounted those difficulties which always increase and strengthen the passion of love, and the day for leading his mistress to the altar was at length fixed. The impatience of love, on such an occasion, need not be described ; hours were years, and a few leagues ten thousand miles. The land of promise at length appears; he leaps on the beach, and without waiting for refreshment, or his servant and baggage, sets out, alone and on foot, for that house which he had so often visited. The servant, who quickly followed, was surprised at being informed that his master had not yet arrived. Having waited, in anxious expectation, till midnight, the apprehensions of the lady and her family were proportionate to the poignancy of their feelings, and the circumstances of the case: messengers were sent, at the dawn of day, to examine and inquire in different quarters, but without success. After days of dreadful suspense, and nights of unavailing anxiety, the corpse of the unfortunate Gordier was at length discovered in a cavity among the rocks, disfigured with many wounds; but no circumstance transpired on which to ground a suspicion, or even hazard a conjecture, concerning the per. petrator of so foul a murder. The regret of both families,
* It is upon this narrative that Captain Jephson founded his l'ragedy of Julia, or the Italian lover.
for a good young man, thus cut off in the meridian of life and expectation, by a cruel assassin, was increased by the mystery in which it was enveloped ; the anguish of the young lady was not of a species which relieves itself by external sorrow, and loud lamentation; she never shed a tear, “ but let concealment, like a worm i’the bud, feed on her damask · cheek :" she pined in thought. Her virtues and her beauty having excited general admiration, the family, after a few years, was prevailed on to permit Mr. Galliard, a merchant of the island, to become her suitor; in hope that a second lover might gradually withdraw her attention from the la. mented catastrophe of her first. In submission to the will of her parents, but with repeated and strong declarations, that she never would marry Galliard, he was occasionally admitted; but the unhappy woman found it difficult to suppress a certain involuntary antipathy which she always felt whenever he approached her. Such was the ardour of passion, or such the fascinating magic of her charms, that repulse only stimulated desire, and Galliard persisted in his unwelcome visits, frequently endeavouring, but in vain, to prevail on the unfortunate lady to accept a present from his hands. It was remarked by her friends, that he was particularly urgent to present her with a beautiful trinket of expensive workmanship, and valuable materials, which she positively and firmly refused; adding, with a correctness of sentiment, and propriety of conduct, not always observed by women on such occasions, that it was base, dishonourable, and mean, to receive favours from a man whose hand she would never accept. But Galliard, by earnestness, assiduity, and by exciting pity, the common resource of artful men, had won over the mother to second his wishes; in her desire to forward his suit, she had, during the night, tied the trinket in question to her daughter's watch-chain, and forbade her, on pain of maternal displeasure, to remove this token of unaccepted love. The health of the fair mourner had been considerably impaired by her sufferings, and the mother of the murdered man, who had ever regarded her with the tenderest affection, crossed the sea to visit her, and offer every consolation in her power, and what in such cases is always the most soothing consolation, to mingle tears with hers. The sight of one so nearly related to her first, her only love, called forth a thousand melancholy ideas in her mind; she recounted many lit
tle incidents, which lovers only consider as important, to the old lady who fondly inquired into, and anxiously obtained every minute particular concerning her beloved son. It was during one of these conversations, that the afflicted female sunk in a convulsion on the floor; and while her relations were conveying her towards a sofa, their terror was consider-ably augmented, by observing that the eyes of Mrs. Gordier : were instantaneously caught by the glittering appendage to the lady's watch-chain, that well known token of her son's affection, which, with a loud voice, frantic gesture, and disordered countenance, she declared, her son had purchased, as a gift for his mistress, previous to his last departure from Jersey. With a dreadful look, in which horror, indignation, wonder, and suspicion were alternately mingled, she repeated this extraordinary circumstance, as well as the agitated state of her feelings would permit, to the victim of affliction, during the interval of a short recovery. The moment the poor sufferer understood that the splendid toy she had hitherto so much despised, was once in the possession of Gordier, the intelligence seemed to plant new daggers in her heart; she made an effort to press it to her lips: her eyes, for a moment exhibited the wild stare of madness stung to its highest pitch, by the invenomed dart of horrible conviction ; then crying out, “ Oh! murderous villain !" she expired in the arms of an attendant. After such a discovery it seems scarcely necessary to unfold the circumstances of this mysterious assassination. Galliard, enamoured of, and envying Gordier the possession of his mistress, had evidently waylaid him from the port, murdered, and plundered him of the trinket; hoping, that after his death, he might possess a jewel far more precious. On being charged with the crime, he denied it, but with evident confusion and equivocation; and while the injured family were despatching a messenger for the officers of justice, he confirmed their suspicions by suicide, and an impious letter left in his apartment.
DEATH BENEATH THE OAK.
(Original.) [This is a translation into prose of Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale, the least interesting portion of it being omitted. A similar work has been done before in Ollier's excellent Olio, but so frcely, that the old bard has little of his real character left; in truth, he is so completely mo
dernized, that his best friends would hardly recognize him, though the praise of elegance cannot be denied to his habit. Still if we must have an antient portrait, why clothe it in the dress of our own times? Style is as much a part of a work as the story which it tells, and that style I have endeavoured to render into prose, making as few alterations as possible.]
WHILOME there was in Flanders a company of young folks that hunted folly, such as hazard, riot, stews, and taverns; there with harps, lutes, and citterns, they danced, and played, and diced, night and day, and ate to excess, doing sacrifice to the devil, in the devil's own temple, in cursed wise, by this abominable superfluity. Their oaths were so great and so damnable, that it was grisly to hear them. Our blessed Lord's body they tore as if they thought the Jews had not rent him enough; and each of them laughed at the other's sin...
Right anon came in tumblers, young fruit girls, singers with harps, and bawds, which verilý are the devil's officers, to kindle and blow the fire of lechery that is annexed unto gluttony. I take the holy writ to witness that lechery is in wine and drunkenness.
These three rioters, of which I am speaking, long before any bell had rung for primes, sate down in a tavern to drink ; and as they sate, they heard a bell chinking before a corpse that was being carried to his grave; whereat one began to call his knave, and said, “ go, boy, and ask readily what corpse this is which passes forth, and look that thou report well his name.” . : “Sir," quoth the boy, " it does not need ; it was told me two hours before ye came here, and indeed he was an old companion of yours. He was slain suddenly last night. While he sate drinking upon his bench, there came a privy thief, whom men yclepe death, and who kills all the people in this country; with his spear he smote the drunkard's heart in two, and then went his way without more words. He hath slain a thousand, this pestilence; and, master, methinks, before you come into his presence, it were right to be aware of such an adversary, being evermore ready to meet him. Thus my dame taught me, and I say no more.”
“ By Saint Mary,” said the Taverner, “ the child speaks sooth; for in a great village above a mile hence, he hath this year slain both man and woman, child and page. I trow