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all classes, not excepting those whose means and education would procure for them the highest, purest, and most delightful employment.

The women of all conditions engage in the lottery almost as freely as the men, and those of the middle and lower classes are addicted to smoking. We now recall with disagreeable vividness the remembrance of a white woman who smoked incessantly on the railway, in company with a colored man. In what relation the latter stood to her, we could not certify. It might have been the nearest; for though the amalgamation of the races is forbidden by law, it is often practised under a pretence, on the white side, of a slight mixture of negro blood. But the ease with which the woman whiffed the cigar-smoke, the carelessness of habit with which she fingered off the ashes, and her bold hale-fellow-well-met manners were unspeakably disgusting. Yet she was doubtless one of the low-bred, in a country where there is a vast distinction between high and low breeding. Well is it that with us the use of tobacco by the gentler sex is confined to the old crone with her pipe in the chimney-corner. The boldness of young ladies in Cuba is a matter of common remark with all strangers. Very beautiful they are, if you will exclude from your definition of beauty the expression of intellect and animation; and they have that comfortable consciousness of beauty, which courts admiration without repelling by haughtiness. It is certainly extraordinary, that with steady eye and unblushing cheek they can expose themselves, while riding on the paseo or sitting by their open windows, to the bold and free gaze of the young men. This boldness may be attributable to habit. But if it does not grow out of character, some peculiarities of character may arise from it. It does not strike a foreigner agreeably, whatever satisfaction he, from a fresh curiosity, may derive from it. He, at least, concludes that the resources of the young people are of a frivolous character. One writer says, and we suppose

with much truth:

"The daily life of a Cuban lady is monotonous in the extreme. It is utterly devoid of intelligent exercise of mind or body, and, as a natural consequence, both deteriorate sadly. A host of nervous diseases attest the truth of this. Early rising is a virtue common to all ranks;

but the manner in which they contrive to kill time without reading, household occupations, or, in fact, any employment, except, perhaps, a little embroidery, is indeed a mystery."-Cuba and the Cubans, p. 147.

The indolence of women which unavoidably accompanies the system of slavery is doubtless unfavorable to morality, and there is a strict surveillance exercised over the Cuban women which quickens one's suspicions almost into conviction. Either because of prudishness, or from sad experience, society threatens the good reputation of a lady who ventures to ride with any other gentleman than her husband.

Among the nobility there is said to be oftentimes a reckless extravagance altogether disproportioned to their means. Rank demands that all the display of a grand establishment shall be sustained, no matter in how ruinous a condition the fortune may be.

"The full payment of debts is avoided by assembling the creditors (some of whom are of the family or fictitious), and agreeing upon yearly instalments by a vote of the majority, while the extravagant living of the family is regarded as necessary expenditure. The poor creditor is forced into compliance, and must take all his satisfaction in seeing the renewed extravagance of the marquis's or count's family, and the suc cessful applications of numerous poor relatives and dependants.". Cuba and the Cubans, p. 140.

The native of Old Spain, from the high-titled count to the meanest soldier, feels a superiority over the Creole and treats him with contempt, though he would meet a foreigner with marked civility. The native of Cuba is rarely admitted to any office, civil, ecclesiastical, or military, and naturally regards with jealousy and hatred those who are sent from the mother country to rule over him and enrich themselves by his gains. He often becomes wealthy on the plantation or in the counting-room; but all his property is at the mercy of those who have few interests in common with him, and with whom cruelty seems to be a natural characteristic.

The Creole's hatred of the Castilians, and consequently of the government to which he feels constrained to submit, is nourished from early childhood, and he is constantly reminded of his inferiority, or his supposed inferiority, to the very end of his days. That the government fears this class of the popula

tion there can be no doubt, and yet it has wonderfully succeeded in keeping them ignorant, cowering, and pusillanimous. To retain the masses in ignorance is the policy of a despotic government as well as of the Romish Church, and Spain has always looked with jealousy upon any attempt to enlighten the lower classes. Where they have been instructed, it has been by private philanthropy. Knowledge necessarily tends to elevate social standing and to increase political power, -ends to be desired where the people are their own rulers, but much hazarding public peace where the people are to be kept under by arbitrary force. Cuba can never make all its resources known, till its agriculture and commerce are under the control of an enlightened and energetic, because free, people.

An interesting portion of the inhabitants of Cuba, to us of these United States who have an eye towards that island in anticipation of its annexation, is the colored population. According to the census of 1846, upwards of four hundred and seventy thousand were blacks and mulattoes, about one third of whom were free; while the whole number of whites was four hundred and twenty-five thousand. The number of free blacks is surprising, and must be attributable to some cause which does not operate in our Southern States. The truth is, that the blacks become free by their own efforts, favored by the laws of the country. The master is compelled to give the slave a portion of his time bearing a fixed ratio to such amount as he may have paid towards his liberty, provided that payment reach the sum of one hundred dollars; and he must also let him have all his time, if he wishes it, at the rate of a rial or twelve and a half cents per day for each hundred dollars of the balance of his value remaining unpaid. It is rare for the slaves on plantations to purchase their freedom, though common field hands are hired at the rate of from twenty-three to twenty-five dollars per month besides their food and clothing. The slaves in the city, who work upon the wharves, or in the streets and market-places, have much better opportunities of liberating themselves. One means of emancipation, oftener of course unfortunate than successful, is the lottery. Instances have occurred, however, of slaves suddenly coming to wealth by this means, and these rare

cases are the only argument we ever heard in defence of the morality of the lottery system.*

The laws permit slaves who belong to different planters to intermarry, and require the masters to buy or sell, so that the parties can live together. Yet, as elsewhere where slavery exists, there is little regard for the marriage vows, and so severely are slaves overworked, and so little cared for are they by their masters, that the loss by death exceeds the natural increase. A sugar plantation during the dry season (at which time only can sugar be manufactured) presents a busy scene. The cane in the fields often far exceeds what the mills can possibly grind, if it be not more than can be cut and carted by all the hands the planter can spare or procure for the purpose; and then it is that every contraction of the negro's muscles affords additional clear profit to the master, and every moment cut from the hours of sleep or meals is so much gain. Then it is that every crack of the mayoral's whip, driving the negro up to the extent of his ability, is counted as a piece of gold. And the poor menial works all day, except an hour for dinner, snatching his breakfast and supper as best he can, in the sugar-house or the field; and as if that were not enough for flesh and blood, he must labor half the night also. The steam must be kept up, and the mills must continue in operation, incessantly, till some lucky day when the boilers need cleansing or the engine must be repaired; and only then does the slave have a respite from his sixteen or seventeen hours of daily work. Many years ago, before the introduction of the steam-engine, the annual loss by death was said to be fully ten per cent. No doubt it is much less now; but a comparison of the census taken in the years 1841 and 1846 will show that it is still very great, especially when we consider that the annual importation of blacks from Africa is estimated at about

The only lottery allowed on the island is public property, the profits going towards the support of the government or the emolument of its officers. Its highest prize is thirty thousand dollars, and its tickets, sold for five dollars, and divided into halves and quarters, are distributed all over the island, offered at the corners of the streets, in the public houses, and along the line of the railroads, and often thrust in one's face as our daily papers are. Many are also purchased by shipmasters and others for inhabitants of the United States.

two thousand. In 1817 there were 225,131 slaves; in 1827, 286,942; in 1841, 436,495; in 1846, 323,779. The rate of increase during the first ten years was 27 per cent.; during the next fourteen years, 52 per cent.; but during the five years frm 1841 to 1846, there was a decrease of 26 per cent. The constant increase of slaves up to some period between the years 1827 and 1841, and their subsequent decrease, strikingly show the efficiency of the measures that have been taken by the European powers and the United States for the suppression of the slave-trade, while at the same time the mortality among this class is shocking, and commands the attention of the philanthropist.

Although the slaves during the grinding season are allowed not more than five or six hours' sleep out of the twenty-four, and although the statistics of mortality tell a sad story, that ought to be heeded by the master; yet at the end of the season they appear so healthy and strong, that one can hardly believe that they have accomplished any extraordinary amount of labor.

It is not very uncommon for the negroes to escape to the woods, and lead a wild life, in preference to the hard work and harsh treatment of the plantations. Dr. Abbot gives an account of one belonging to an estate of a friend of his, who for some serious offence had been trammelled with irons.

"He watched his opportunity, and escaped into the woods, and though soon pursued, he had rid himself of his clanking chains, by which he might be traced. With lime-juice and his hatchet he had sawed off his irons; and one piece, too large to yield suddenly to this method, he had battered off between two stones. Some gentlemen, some time after, who were in pursuit of other negroes, came by surprise on this man. He was hunting a hutia, a kind of tree woodchuck, and so intense in his watch of the animal on the tree, that he easily fell into the hands of the hunters, who restored him to his master." - Abbot's Letters from Cuba, pp. 58, 59.

Many of the slaves commit suicide,—so many, that this is to be reckoned among the serious causes of their diminished numbers. They have a strong conviction that by death they shall return to their native country, and this they often regard as far preferable to their present life of toil. It is related that

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