Imágenes de páginas
[blocks in formation]

the tower by a chain which runs over the top, with a weight attached at the other end to balance the instrument. From this weight a rope goes down to a small windlass, by which the telescope is raised or lowered at pleasure.

The top of the tower is made to revolve, and the end of the instrument containing the eye-glass is supported by a frame-work which rests upon a circular railway, at a distance of fifty-two feet from its center. By this arrangement the telescope has also a horizontal motion, around the tower, and may thus be directed toward any part of the heavens, from the horizon to within ten degrees of the zenith.

This noble telescope is superior to all others ever constructed, in its space-penetrating qualifications and powers of discovery. It resolves the Milky Way into regular constellations; and those nebulous spots which with Lord Rosse's telescope appear only as brilliant star dust,” are found by this to be perfect stars, in groups away

that their light blends in one white mass ere it reaches our globe.

So distinctly do the mountains and rocks on the surface of the moon appear through it, that were there any large buildings, cities, or bodies of water upon that planet, they must be detected. But poor Luna still appears as seen through Lord Rosse's mammoth reflector, “like one great ruin of nature.”

The glasses of this telescope are perfectly achromatic. Saturn exhibits itself through it with a milk-like whiteness; and we may expect some disclosures relative to its mysterious rings ere long. Doubtless the question will also be settled whether Venus has a satellite, or not; and we await with interesting anticipation many new discoveries by its aid, among the starry realms.

so far


CANY of the words now so frequently seen in the accounts of the

war between Turkey and Russia, such as, “ Sublime Porte, Sultan, Pashaw, Bey,” etc., are often misunderstood. The following explanations may afford some light on their signification to many who read the news from the Old World.

Ottoman is derived from Othman, the name of the sultan who assumed the government of the Turkish empire about the year 1300.

[blocks in formation]

The word is applied to something that pertains to the Turks, or their government; as, Ottoman power, or Ottoman empire.

Sublime Porte is the official title of the Turkish government. It is not the title of any officer of the government, as many suppose it to be. The word was derived from the gate (port) of the sultan's palace—the sublime gate.

Sultan is the title commonly applied to the Ottoman emperor by Europeans. Sometimes he is called the Grand Sultan, or Grand Seignior. The word sultan is of Arabic origin, and signifies mighty. Various Mohammedan princes are also styled by this title, besides the Ottoman emperor.

The title which the Turkish Sultan himself assumes is Padishah, which signifies a protector, or throne prince.

Pashaw, or Pacha, is the military governor of a Turkish province. According to the importance of his province he is distinguished by one, two, or three horse tails, carried before him. Every Pashaw is appointed and removed at the will of the Sultan. He has his own army in his province, distinct from the grand army of the emperor. A Pashaw with three horse tails has the power to punish with death.

Bey is a sub-governor, under the Pashaw. The Turks write this word begh or beg, but pronounce it bay. There are seven Beys in each province.

Divan is the Council of State of the Ottoman empire, consisting of the principal ministers of government. This word is also applied to their council chamber.

Cadi is a Turkish justice of the peace, or the judge of a town.

Reis Effendi (rees ef-fen-di), is the name given to the secretary of state, or high chancellor of the Turkish empire.


PUNCTILIOUSNESS. — At a literary dinner in London, where Thackeray and Angus B. Reach were vis-à-vis (viz -a-ve') at the table, Thackeray, who had never before met this journalist and author, addressed him as Mr. Reach, pronouncing the name as its orthography would naturally indicate. “Re-ak, sir, Re-ak, if you please," said Mr. Reach, who is punctilious in having his name pronounced in two syllables, as if spelled Re-ak. Thackeray of course apologized and corrected his pronunciation; but, in the course of the dessert, he took occasion to hand a plate of fine peaches across the table, saying, in a tone which only he possesses, “Mr. Re-ak, will you take a Pe-ak ?"

Youth's Department.



THE morning was bright and beautiful, one of the first, soft, balmy

days in spring. The snows had melted away; the distant forests were losing their purple hue and assuming a faint green tinge, and the air came stealing in so softly and wooingly, you would feel as if you wished to throw aside all care and toil, and roam over field and forest, just to enjoy the very luxury of existence. So thought Henry Jerome as he sat down under a budding tree on his way to school.

His home was in the suburbs of a large city, but the school-house to which he daily wended his way was in a busy street of the crowded town, and Henry, though much attached to his school, longed to escape from rattling pavements and brick walls to wander unrestrained in the inviting fields. In plain terms, he was strongly tempted to play truant.

“ What is the use," said he to himself, “ of shutting myself up in that old prison-house this warm, beautiful day? I can't study; I don't feel like it; and then, if my lessons are not learned, there will be a grand time. Mr. Grover will fix his eye on me and say, as usual, · Master Jerome, I require a perfect lesson. Remember, you are forming a character. Then I shall have to stay in till I know every word in that old musty book. I do believe Mr. Grover is always crosser and more particular on pleasant days than any other.

Forming a character! I know what I would like to form-a boat after the model of that floating down the river. What a lucky thought! I've got a capital hook-and-line in my pocket, and I'll go fishing. But what shall I tell Mr. Grover and my father? Perhaps father will give me an excuse to-morrow. I can tell him I did not feel like going to school to-day. And I really am not well; my head feels dull, and I am so tired I don't believe I could stay in school all day. It is not right to expose one's health, and I think I'll stay out of school and go fishing." Just as Henry came to this wise conclusion, a sudden gust of

[ocr errors]




wind blew a piece of newspaper toward him. “ What is this?" said he, picking it up lazily, his duty to his health requiring him to make no exertion. It was only a piece of a daily paper, covered with “rewards” and “wants.” He read on for a time listlessly.

“$10 REWARD.—Lost, in Clinton Street, on the 16th, a small diamond breast-pin. The finder will receive the above reward, and the thanks of the owner, by returning it to 138 West Street.”

“Now, if I could only find that pin, I could make ten dollars very easily. But let me see. Lost on the 16th, and this is the 28th. There is no chance for me." “WANTED.-A number of smart, intelligent lads in a daguerreian

Address, Artist, at this office.” “WANTED.—In a publishing house, an active and industrious lad, who understands something of book-keeping. None but steady, energetic, and intelligent lads need apply, for I want no idlers nor loungers about me.-E. B. WILLIAMS, 84 Ward Street."

Well, that's a curious advertisement! 'I want no idlers or loungers about me.' I fancy I should not suit the gentleman if he were to catch me here and know how terribly I am tempted to go to the river and lounge. It is a little singular that all people want active, intelligent, and industrious persons in their employ. None seem to want loungers or idlers, though they do not all express themselves quite so frankly. Well, I don't blame people.”

“Get up, you lazy fellow—what are you stopping for ?" shouted a voice close by. Henry started, thinking himself the object addressed, but it was only a milkman speaking to his horse.

But so powerful was the effect upon his mind, that he resolved to give up fishing and go to school. He hurried along, feeling he had no time to lose if he wished to reach his place in season, and while still some distance from school, the slow, heavy chimes of a neighboring clock began to peal the momentous hour of nine.

“ It is of no use,” he said; and then the thought, “ I want no idlers or loungers about me,” came vividly before him. He ran at the top of his speed, and panting with the exertion reached his place just in time.

“ Seest thou a man diligent in his business; he shall stand before kings; he shall not stand before mean men," commenced the teacher in his morning reading.

“ That is for me,” thought Henry.

Whether his courage failed him during the day we will not say, but he smiled when he read his copy, “ Idleness is the parent of



sin and ignorance ;" and never did the motto over the door, “ Perseverance conquers all things," appear so distinct as on that day. The letters seemed to stare at him, and whenever he turned a longing glance toward the open window through which the tempting, tantalizing breeze was playing, they expanded till they hid every thing else from his view.

The bees never buzzed half so busily; an ant ran up and down the ceiling as if bewitched, and in a half-hidden corner a grim spider was most diligently employed in making repairs in his broken web.

“* No idlers or loungers about me,"” said Henry; "well, I don't like to set myself up as an oddity."

It is an easy thing to form good habits; at least Henry Jerome found it so. His very great regard for duty to his health ceased to interfere with his attending school, and in a short time punctuality became pleasant to him.

After leaving school, some three or four years subsequent, he was seeking employment, when the self-same advertisement which had formerly arrested his attention again met his eye. He called immediately and applied for the situation.

“What testimony of your ability and punctual habits can you bring ?” asked Mr. Williams, a kind but eccentric man.

“ These, sir,” replied Henry, laying several papers before him.

The gentleman adjusted his spectacles, and read at first with apparent indifference, but soon his interest seemed to increase. He glanced at Henry occasionally, ejaculating, “ Ah!” “Indeed!” “ Possible !"

“ These papers,” said he at length, “ inform me that for the last four years you have been absent from school but three days, and then on account of illness; that you have never been tardy in attendance; that your lessons during that time have all been good; that your character is excellent, and you are especially prompt, diligent, and energetic.

“I am acquainted with Mr. Grover, and I know he would not give you these certificates unless you deserve them. I would rather have such a recommendation than references to all the influential men in the Union.”

In five years from that time the advertisement again appeared :

“WANTED.-An active and intelligent lad who understands something of book-keeping: None but steady, energetic, and industrious persons need apply, as we want no idlers nor loungers about us.WILLIAMS, JEROME & Co.”

« AnteriorContinuar »