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a'right to her habitation by long possession. I will not attempt here to explain how men acquire a right to property by long undisturbed possession. i ni ; j..e , . . .
IV. inn i - “Beneath those rugged elms, that yew tree's shade
Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring heap,
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid, . The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.
By using the word " those," the poet eng deavours to make the reader present at the scene. Gray has attempted the same kind of description in prose, in one of his letters from Italy, when he points out objects to his friend Mr. West, as if he were present and could see them. - There is a moon! There are stars for you! Do not you hear the fountain ? Do not you smell the orange flowers? That building yonder is the convent of St. Isidore; and that eminence with the cypress trees and pines upon it, the top of Mount Quirinal *."
Heaves the turf,--to raise ; saying that the turf is raised in heaps, is prose; saying that it rises, or seems to rise of itself, is the language of poetry.
Rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.-- Rude; it properly means rough, rustic, unpolished,
* Gray's Letters, Vol. I, p. 89, Lett. 21.
Sleep-Sleep in death. 'Death is frequently compared to sleep.
.“ The breezy call of incense-breathing morn, .
The swallow twitt'ring from her straw-built shed,
Breezy call the call of the breeze. The wind in poetry is said to murmur-to whisper, &c.
Incense-breathing.–Another compound epithet-Incense is the smoke of perfuine, and is therefore properly applied in speaking of the breath, which issues from the mouth, and which looks like smoke, as may be seen on a cold morning, or in frosty weather. It is here applied to morning as it were to a person who is supposed to breathe a sweet perfume, because the morning air is usually sweet and refreshing.
Cock's shrill clarion,-or trumpet.
i' yi. " For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn, Or busy housewife ply her evening care : No children run to lisp their sire's return, Or climb his knees, the envied kiss to share.
Housewife-properiy means the wife, who
who takes care of the house : it sometimes means a thrifty, careful person.
It is hoped that our young readers will consult a dictionary, for the meaning of such words as they do not clearly understand.
" Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,
These three last stanzas point out the object of the poem, which is to show that death levels all distinctions, and that the poor, who were buried in this churchyard, had all the feelings, pains, and pleasures of the rich. The poet says, “ In yonder churchyard, beneath the shade of those elus and yew trees, the earth, raised in heaps over those graves, points out the places where the former inhabitants of the village sleep in death. The morning breeze, that smells sweetly, the swallow chirping at the eaves of their thatched cottages, the crowing of the cock, or the huntsman's horn, shall never again rouse them from their bed. No cheerful fire shall be again lighted, nor supper prepared for them by their careful and fond wives; nor shall their children, who have been playing on the green,
run home to tell that they see their fathers returning from their work."
" Let not ambition mock their useful toil,
The short and simple annals of the poor.
The words " ambition," and " grandeur," are here used to express those persons who are ann. bitious, and those who are fond of grandeur; such persons often despise their inferiours, and are here called upon by the poet, to listen to the “ annals of the poor” without derision or contempt.
Annals.-Annal is properly a history of each year, during any particular period: here it means a history. :
The paths of glory lead but to the grave. Heraldry. We request our young readers to consult Chambers's Dictionary for an ex planation, under the word arms, It would take up too much room to explain it here.
Th’ inevitable hour--the hour of death, which cannot be avoided.
The paths of glory. -Life is frequently represented in poetry, and moral writings, as a journey ; ånd the different pursuits of mankind are metaphorically called roads, or paths, or walks, or ways; as, the road to preferment, the path of honour, the walks of the righteous, and the ways of man, are all familiar expressions; and sometimes life is also represented as a voyage. An ocean of misery, a sea of troubles, the stream of favour, the fountain of honours, the tide of prosperity, the current of affairs, the ebb of favour or of fortune, are figurative 'expressions that are continually ein: ployed by orators and poets.'
Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, : If mem'ry o'er their tomb no trophies raise, , Where through the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault, The pealing anthem swells the pote of praise.
Impute to these the fault --These means those poor persons who have only a heap of earth raised over their graves, instead of monuments with pompous inscriptions. Look in the dictionary for trophies and anthem. .." vi .: Pealing:- This word appears particularly poetical, because, though it is to be found in Milton and Pope, it has not been commonly