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The lash-means the whip. When a boy cracks his whip, it is the lash that resounds.

The rolling chariot-not the rolling ring. This is a metonymy.

“ And gath'ring crowds with eager eyes, . And shouts, pursue him as he fjes. Crowds, that were collecting at this sight, pursued him with their looks, and with shouts of applause.

He flies-does not mean that he literally few, but that he went almost as fast as if he. flew.

“ Triumphant to the goal return'd,
With nobler thirst his bosom burn'd,

The goal-sometimes means, as it does here, the place from which the racer sets out, · Nobler thirst.--His bosom burned with amr bition to execute the nobler or more difficult task of passing exactly over the same track again.

Burned. To burn witù thirst is a well chosen metaphor, as both thirst, and fire, are quenched with water---this is a double inetaphor.

" And now along th' indented plain,,

The self-same track he marks again;
Indented-literally means the impression of

teeth upon any thing, but it generally means any impression whatever ; for instance, it here means the impression of the wheels in the dust.

The self-same track. It was a difficult feat for a charioteer to direct the wheels of his chariot so as to describe repeatedly the same circle.

“ Pursues with care the nice design,

Nor ever deviates from the line.
To deviate--means to go out of the way.

66. Amazément seiz'd the circling crowd,

Ev'n bearded sages Irail'd'the boy,

And all, but Plató, gaz'd with joy. The feats of this youth equally delighted tliei old and young the youths he inspired with emulation, that is, à desire to equal or excel.. Emulation does not mean etivý.

Bearded.-Men who were old, and whose beards were grown long (for at that time the

men were thought to be wiser than othrets, on account of their experience.

Sage--means wis ; a wise person is therefore called a sage-these also congratulared, or hailed hin, upon his success; all but Plate ;

"". For he, deep-judging sage, beheld

With pain the triumphs of the field ; . 1 This sentence is transposed; in prose it would be placed thus:-For he the sage who judged of things with an unprejudiced eye, (not dazzled with outward appearances) beheld the triumphs of the field with pain.

The field--ineans the plain on which he ran ; and the triumphs of the field are the victories of the course or race.

" And when the charioteer drew nigh, And Hush'd with hope had caught his eye, Flushed-means elated; person's who are elated with success are apt to blush.

“ Alas! unhappy youth, he cried, · Expect no praise from me (and sigh’d) · With indignation I survey.

Such skill and judgment thrown away, : · The time profusely squander'd there

On vulgar arts, beneath thy care,
If well employed (at less expense,)
Had taught thee honour, virtue, sense,
And rais’d thee froin a coachman's fate,

To govern men, and guide the state.”, "And sighed. These words are not part of Plato's speech: it means, that the philosopher sighed as he spoke ; it grieved the wise and

deep-judging Plato' to see a youth of suclr rare talents or acquirements throw away his time.

Expense-means expense of tiine and trouble.

The pupil will take notice of the word' thee in the two lines before the last—Thee is a more poetical word than you; it should be pointed out to the pupil, that the rhymes in this little poem are frequently inaccurate. i





CHURCHYARD, BY GRAY. This is one of the most popular poems that we know of; it pleases all ranks and all ages; and it is therefore a proper piece to begin with.

· This poein is called an Elegy, because the subject of it is melancholy. It describes the appearance of a country churchyard on a súm. mer's evening, and expresses the thoughts that arose in the mind of the poet, when he reflected upon the objects which he saw before him. He marks the hour, by mentioning the tolling of the curfew or evening bell the return of

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the ploughman and his cattle from their work, and the approach of darkness.

. 1. ". The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd windsbowly.o'er the lea, The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

The curfew. When William Duke of Nora mandy conquered England, about seven hundred years ago, he obliged all the people to retire to their houses and put out their fires at eight o'clock in the evening, to prevent them from assembling in the night to form schemes against his government. A bell was therefore rung at that hour to warn the people to cover their fires *. Cover in French is couvre-and 'fire in french is feu, couvre-feu, which by leaving out some of the letters becomes corfeu or curfew.

Knello. A church bell rung at the death of any person; it is sometimes called a passing bell.

Parting, Shortened from departing. The words departing this life are sometimes used instead of dying. The tolling of the curfew

* This circumstance is denied by Andrews, in his tristory of England.

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