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GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows the general occupation of males at the present time in the households studied:

TABLE 140.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The above table shows that, of 470 males from whom information was secured in this locality, 85.3 per cent are in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 11.9 per cent in occupations not specified in the above table, and 2.8 per cent are at school.

Comparing the native-born of foreign father with the foreign-born, it will be noted that almost the entire per cent of the latter, as compared with 46.4 per cent of the former, are in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, while a much greater proportion of the former than the latter are in occupations not specified and at school. As regards the foreign-born, with the exception of 5.9 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, who are in occupations other than those specified, the entire number of each race is in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry. None of the Bohemians and Moravians or Poles, native-born of foreign father, are at home and only a small proportion of each are at school, the former reporting 3.1 per cent, as compared with 8.3 per cent of the latter. Comparing the proportions employed in the slaughtering and meat packing, it will be noted that the Poles report a much larger proportion than the Bohemians and Moravians.

DAILY EARNINGS.

In the series of tables next presented the daily earnings of the Chicago slaughtering and packing employees are considered. The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the range in daily earnings of 13,845 male employees who were 18 years of age or

over:

TABLE 141.-Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In this locality almost all of the male employees 18 years of age or over earn at least $1.50 a day, while 18.8 per cent earn $2.50 a day or over and 7.8 per cent $3 or over. The proportion of employees earning $1.75 or over, $2 or over, and $2.50 or over, respectively, is largest for the native-born of native father, white, second largest for the native-born of foreign father, and larger for the native-born of native father, negro, than for the foreign-born. Of the foreignborn, the Swedes have the largest and the Russians the smallest proportion of individuals earning $1.75 per day or over, or $2 per day or

over.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day.

TABLE 142.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

*

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In this locality 86.2 per cent of the males between 14 and 18 years of age for whom information was secured earn $1 per day or over, 66.4 per cent earn $1.25, and 38.4 per cent earn $1.50 or over, while only a small proportion earn $1.75 per day or over. The proportion of individuals earning each specified sum is considerably larger for the foreign-born than for either the native-born of native father or the native-born of foreign father.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The following table not only shows the extent to which increased skill and efficiency as reflected by growth in earning ability is developed after designated periods of residence of foreign-born employees in Chicago, but also by bringing the periods of residence under the several races renders it possible to study the advancement in earning ability of each race according to period of residence in this country. It should be noted both in this and the following table that the residence in the United States and the period of employment in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry are not necessarily the same.

TABLE 143.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the preceding table the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and Irish show an earning capacity materially higher than that of the Lithuanians, Polish, Russians, and Slovaks. The Slovaks show a higher earning capacity than the Russians, Lithuanians, and Poles. The table also indicates an increased earning capacity as the length of residence in the United States increases and that the percentage of increase is greater among the non-English-speaking races than among the Irish. The percentage of increase is usually greater between the first and second periods than between the second and third.

The table next presented shows by race and length of residence in the United States the range in daily earnings of foreign-born male employees, 18 years of age or over.

TABLE 144.-Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the preceding table the Irish, Germans, and Bohemians and Moravians show an earning capacity materially higher than that of the Lithuanians, Poles, Russians, and Slovaks. In the first period the earning capacity of the Irish is slightly in excess of that of the Germans and Bohemians and Moravians, but the Bohemians and Moravians exhibit the highest proportion employed at the rate of $3 or over per day, in every period.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The annual earnings of the male heads of families employed in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry are shown in the two tables next presented. The first table, which immediately follows, shows by general nativity and race the number and per cent of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

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