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TABLE 145.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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From the data presented in the above table, it will be seen that, in this locality, 99.7 per cent of all husbands, for whom information was secured, are at work, and that the yearly earnings of these husbands average $604. Larger average annual earnings are reported for the native-born than for the foreign-born husbands. Of all husbands, both native-born and foreign-born, the Poles alone report a proportion not employed.

The largest average yearly earnings is reported for the English, followed by the native whites, Swedes, and Germans, in the order named, and the smallest is reported for the Russians. The average annual earnings of the different races range from $865 for the English to $386 for the Russians, the husbands of the older immigrant races reporting, in general, considerably higher average yearly earnings than are reported by the more recent immigrant races.

48296°-VOL 13-11-15

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the range in yearly earnings of male heads of families:

TABLE 146.-Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

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As regards the foreign-born, it will be seen that in general the older immigrant races from Great Britain and northern Europe show the greatest earning capacity. Of the more recent immigrants, the North Italians and Bohemians and Moravians show earnings similar to the older immigrant races. Of the total number, the largest proportion, or 55.5 per cent, earns less than $600, 83.7 per cent less than $800, and 92.6 per cent less than $1,000. Of the 55.5 per cent earning under $600, much the largest proportion earns between $400 and $600 per year.

A comparison of the native-born with the foreign-born shows that the proportions of the latter earning each specified amount exceed those of the former, the difference being especially large as between those earning under $600 per year.

Only four races, of which the Irish report the largest and Bohemians and Moravians the smallest, show proportions earning less than $200 per year. Of those earning less than $400, there is little difference in the proportions of the Poles and Slovaks, each reporting a comparatively large proportion. Following these races, in the order named, are the Irish, Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and North Italians, the last named reporting 4.5 per cent; none of the English or Swedes carn less than this amount. Of those earning under $600 or under $800 per year, the Poles and Slovaks again report much the largest proportions, the former showing a larger per cent than the latter earning under $600, while each report 100 per cent earning less than $800. The smallest proportions earning under $600, $800, and $1,000 are reported by the English and Swedes.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The approximate yearly earnings of all males 18 years of age or over who were working for wages, whether they were heads, children, or boarders and lodgers, are shown in the following table by general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 147.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

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Of 415 males 18 years of age or over reporting complete data, the average earnings are $594 per year. The average yearly earnings of the foreign-born are slightly in excess of those of native-born of foreign father, while the native-born of native father show average yearly earnings greater than the foreign-born. Of the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were Irish report, much higher average yearly earnings than those whose fathers were Bohemians and Moravians or Poles. Comparing the yearly earnings of the different foreign races, it is seen that the English show much higher earnings than the Swedes, who are second, and the average earnings of all the older immigrant races are higher than those of the more recent ones, with the exception of North Italian, which race stands third. The Russians report the lowest average, while the average yearly earnings of none of the following-named races reach $500: Russian, Magyar, Slovak, Polish, and South Italian. A very small proportion,

2.2 per cent, of the total number reporting complete data earn less than $200 per year, while a considerably larger per cent, 6.7, earn $1,000 or over. Slightly more than half, 56.1 per cent, earn less than $600.

Comparing the native-born of foreign father with the foreignborn, it is seen that a slightly larger proportion of the former earn under $200 per year than of the latter, while a larger per cent of the foreign-born than of the native-born of foreign father, receive $1,000 or over per year. A larger proportion of the foreign-born than of the native-born of foreign father have average yearly earnings of less than $600. Comparing the different foreign-born races, it is seen that the Irish show the highest per cent receiving less than $200 per year, followed by the Slovak, Polish, German, Bohemian and Moravian, English, North Italian, and Swedish, in the order named, the three last-named races showing none earning less than this amount. A much larger proportion of the English-32 per cent-earn $1,000 or more per year, while none of the Slovaks and Poles reporting earn this much.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

An examination is next made of the amount and sources of annual income of the families studied. In this connection the following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified

amount:

TABLE 148.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The preceding table shows a total of 339 families, the largest proportion, or 56.6 per cent, of which have a total yearly income of under $750. The proportion shown as having a total yearly income under $300 is smaller than that shown as having a total yearly income of $1,500 or over. The proportionate increase between those having a total yearly income of from $500 to $750 is greater than that shown between those having a total yearly income of from $750 to $1,000. The native-born show a larger proportion having a total yearly income under $300 than do the foreign-born, which is more than offset by the fact that they also show larger proportions as having a total yearly income from $750 to $1,500, the foreign-born showing larger proportions as regards a total yearly income from $300 to $750.

Comparing the foreign-born races, it will be seen that the English, North Italian, Polish, and Swedish races each show a total yearly income of $300 or over, while the Slovak shows the largest proportion having a total yearly income under $300. It will be seen that the Slovaks also show none with a total yearly income of $1,000 or over. With the exception of the English, German, and Swedish each race shows a larger increase between those having a total yearly income under $500 and under $750 than between those having a total yearly income under $750 and under $1,000.

WIVES AT WORK.

In connection with the study of the sources of family income the following table is presented showing, by general nativity and race of head of family, the number and per cent of wives in the households studied who were employed outside the home as wage-earners:

TABLE 149.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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Of the 337 wives found in the 339 families studied in the above table, it will be seen that only 7, or 2.1 per cent, are at work, the entire

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