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case exceeds 6 per cent, who are single or widowed. Comparing the total males with the total females, it will be seen that the proportion in each conjugal condition is practically the same. Both the males and females of foreign birth show a decidedly larger proportion who are married, than those of native birth of foreign parentage. As regards the different races, it will be seen that, with the exception of the Bohemian and Moravian, which shows 6.1 per cent single, each race shows that the entire number of males are married or widowed, while, with the exception of the Bohemian and Moravian, which shows 3 per cent single, and Swedish, which shows 3.6 per cent single, each race shows that the entire number of females are married widowed.

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Although a considerable proportion of the immigrant employees are married, the fact of greatest significance in connection with their conjugal condition is that large numbers when immigrating to the United States left their wives in their native countries. From the "study of employees" the following table shows the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad according to race of husband.

TABLE 177.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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Of the foreign-born husbands in this locality for whom information was secured, 17.6 per cent report their wives abroad. The proportion of husbands reporting wives abroad is largest among the Russians, followed by the Lithuanians, Slovenians, and Croatians, in the order mentioned. All of the Canadians other than French and over 95 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, English, Germans, Irish, Scotch, and Swedes report their wives in the United States.

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The extent to which married males of foreign birth send for wives after designated periods of residence in this country is exhibited by the following table, which shows by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad.

TABLE 178.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]

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From the above table it appears that the proportion of husbands who have been in the United States under five years who report wives abroad is largest for the Russians. The Lithuanians have the largest proportion of husbands in the United States from five to nine years or ten years or over, who report wives abroad.

VISITS ABROAD.

The table next presented indicates the transitory qualities that exist among the immigrant employees. It shows by years in the United States and race of individual visits abroad made by foreignborn male employees.

TABLE 179.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born male employees, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the individuals in this locality for whom information was secured who have been in the United States ten years or over 11 per cent have made one or more visits abroad, as against 8.1 per cent of those who have been here from five to nine years, and only 4.1 per cent of those who have been here under five years. The proportion of individuals in the United States under five years who have made one or more visits abroad is largest for the Slovaks and smallest for the Swedes, who report no visits. The English have the largest and the Lithuanians the smallest proportion of individuals who have been here from five to nine years who have made visits abroad, and the English have the largest and the Bohemians and Moravians the smallest proportion of individuals who have been here ten years or over who have made visits abroad.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSE

HOLDS.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household, the per cent of persons in the households studied who were within each specified age group:

TABLE 180.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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TABLE 180.-Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and general nativity and race of head of household-Continued.

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It appears from the above table that of the males for whom information was secured, 19.6 per cent are under 6 years of age, 19.3 per cent from 6 to 13, 5.2 per cent from 14 to 15, 8.3 per cent from 15 to 19, 14.1 per cent from 20 to 29, 21.1 per cent from 30 to 44, and 12.3 per cent 45 or over. The proportion of individuals at the ages of greatest efficiency-from 20 to 29 and from 30 to 44-is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born. Of the foreign-born the Irish have the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion of individuals from 20 to 29 years of age, and the North Italians have the largest and the Irish the smallest proportion of individuals from 30 to 44 years of age.

Among the females the proportion of individuals from 20 to 29 years of age is considerably larger and the proportion of individuals 45 years of age or over is smaller than among the males. With these exceptions, the proportion of females included in each age group does not differ widely from the proportion of males. The proportion of females from 20 to 29 years of age is larger for the native-born of foreign father than for the foreign-born, while the proportion of females from 30 to 44 and 45 years of age or over, respectively, is much larger for the foreign-born than for the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born the Poles have the largest and the Germans the smallest proportion of females from 20 to 29 years of age. The proportion of females from 30 to 44 years of age is much larger for the North Italians than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Irish. The proportion of females 45 years age or over is much larger for the Irish than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Slovaks.

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The age composition of the operating forces of the Chicago slaughtering and meat-packing establishments is shown according to general nativity and race in the table below.. The table furnishes an insight into the ages of foreign-born employees and makes possible a comparison on the basis of age with the native-born in the same work.

TABLE 181.-Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, none are under 14 years of age, 7 per cent are from 14 to 19, 18.9 per cent are from 20 to 24, 19 per cent are from 25 to 29, 13.8 per cent are from 30 to 34, 21 per cent are from 35 to 44, 14 per cent are from 45 to 54, and 6.4 per cent are 55 or over. The proportion of employees from 20 to 24 years of age is largest for the native-born of foreign father, second largest for the native-born of native father, white, and smallest for the native-born of native father, negro; the proportion of employees from 25 to 29 years of age is largest for the foreign-born, second largest for the native-born of native father, negro, and smallest for the native-born of native father, white; the proportion of employees from 30 to 34 years of age is largest for the native-born of native father, negro, second largest for the foreign-born and smallest for the native-born of foreign father; and the proportion of employees from 35 to 44 years of age is largest for the native-born of native father, negro, second largest for the foreign-born and smallest for the nativeborn of native father, white. Of the foreign-born, the Slovenians have the largest and the Swedes the smallest percentage of individuals from 20 to 24; and the Croatians have the largest and the Canadians other than French the smallest proportion of individuals from 25 to 29. The proportion of individuals from 30 to 34 is largest for the Magyars and smallest for the Irish; and the proportion of individuals from 35 to 44 is largest for the Canadians other than French and smallest for the Magyars.

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