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but 7.6 per cent of the total number. Of the second-generation male immigrants, or native-born of foreign father, the Germans and Irish are the only races that represent more than 1 per cent of the total number. The proportion whose fathers were born in Germany is 5.5 per cent and the proportion whose fathers were born in Ireland is 3.8 per cent. The Polish males appear in larger proportion than does any other foreign-born race. Of the total number of male employees, 15.9 per cent are foreign-born males; almost as large a proportion as that shown by the whites, native-born of native father. No other foreign-born race shows a proportion of males that is as great as 10 per cent of the total number.

The native-born of native father females, white, show a proportion that is almost as large as the proportion shown by the males of that group. Slightly more than 12 per cent of the total number of female employees are native-born of father who was born in Germany. Of the foreign-born females, the Poles represent a larger proportion of the total number than does any other one race. The proportion is 21.6 per cent. The next largest proportion is shown by the Lithuanians, who represent 10.1 per cent of the total number. The Bohemians and Moravians, Croatians, Germans, and Slovaks each show a proportion that is large when compared with the other races.

TABLE 15.-Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per cent distribution.

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TABLE 15.-Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per cent distribution-Continued.

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The chief reason for the employment of recent immigrants in the industry has been the unavailability of other labor. The expansion in other lines of industrial enterprise at the same time that the slaughtering and meat packing was being established and developed led to a demand for labor which could not be satisfied without

recourse to outside sources. As might be expected, the natives, together with the Irish and Germans first employed, sought more agreeable work and better industrial opportunities than the packing houses afforded. As the places of those employees who left the industry were filled by representatives of recent immigration, the movement of the class of pioneer employees away from the industry was stimulated by reason of the fact that natives, Germans, and Irish resented the competition of the newcomers and felt a repugnance toward working relations with them. As a result, the members of races of older immigration from Great Britain and northern Europe who remained in the industry gradually advanced to the more responsible and skilled occupations, where there was little, if any, contact with representatives of recent immigrant races, and abandoned the common labor and disagreeable work to persons from southern and eastern Europe. Recent immigrants have been employed to a very small extent as strike-breakers in the various labor disputes which have occurred in the industry. Negroes have usually been brought in by the employers and used for this purpose.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-The first and second generations compared-Occupations entered by immigrants in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry-Daily earnings Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied—Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studiedAnnual family income-Wives at work-Female members of households studied who were at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income-[Text Tables 16 to 57 and General Tables 6 to 25].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

For an intelligent study of the present economic status of the immigrant labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, an investigation of the industrial condition of the foreign-born before coming to the United States, differing as it did among the various races, is almost essential. The series of tables which follows shows the industrial condition abroad of the large numbers of foreign-born who reported complete data. The first tables are concerned with the females in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming.

TABLE 16.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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TABLE 17.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.]

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Of the 725 females in the households studied from whom information was obtained, 55.7 per cent were without occupation abroad, 22.6 per cent worked for wages, 17.9 per cent without wages, and the remaining proportion for profit. Of those working for wages, the North Italians, Swedes, Bohemians and Moravians, and Poles show proportions considerably above the general average, while the Slovaks, Irish, Lithuanians, and Croatians show proportions considerably below that figure. No Lithuanians or Swedes, and only small proportions of the Bohemians and Moravians and North Italians, worked without wage before coming to the United States. No Irish, Slovaks, or Swedes, and only 0.6 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, worked for profit, while the Poles, with 9.1 per cent so engaged, show a larger proportion than the Croatians, North Italians, Germans, or Lithuanians, in the order named. As regards those who were without occupation, the Lithuanians, with 89.7 per cent, show the largest proportion and the Poles, with 35.5 per cent, the smallest. The per cents of the other races range from 76.9 of the Irish to 42.9 of the North Italians.

Of the females who were working for wages, more than one-half, or 12 per cent, of their entire number reporting in the table were in domestic service. The next largest number were farm laborers and only 3.6 per cent were in other lines of work. All of those who were working without wages were farm laborers, and of the 27 who were working for profit, 23 were farmers and only 4 were in other occupations. Each race, except the Slovak, shows a certain proportion, ranging from 18.2 per cent of the Poles to 1.8 per cent of the Croatians, to have been farm laborers for wages; each, except the Irish, shows a certain proportion ranging from 26.9 per cent of the Swedish to 1.8 per cent of the Croatians to have been in domestic service for wages; and several races show certain of their number to have been working for wages as factory operatives, in hand trades, and in other occupations.

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