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GENERAL OCCUPATION OF MALES AT THE PRESENT TIME IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the general occupation of males, within the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over:

TABLE 273.-General occupation of males 16 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The grand total of the above table shows 542 males reporting, 89.3 per cent of whom are in slaughtering and meat packing, 7.4 per cent in other occupations, 1.8 per cent at home, and 1.5 per cent at school. Foreign-born show the highest per cent in slaughtering and meat packing, native-born of native father and native-born of foreign father following with lower per cents. Of those at home, nativeborn of foreign father show the largest per cent, followed by foreignborn and native-born of native father, the last named showing no males at home.

In comparing native-born of foreign father, it is seen that in other occupations Germans show the largest proportion. Bohemians and Moravians show the highest per cent at home, followed by Germans in slightly smaller proportions, and Germans show the highest per cent at school.

Of the foreign-born, Lithuanians show the largest proportion in slaughtering and meat packing, followed by Poles, Irish, Germans, Bohemians and Moravians, and Japanese. None reported attending school and the table shows only small proportions at home. No Irish or Lithuanians are in other occupations, Japanese showing the largest proportions.

OCCUPATIONS OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES IN THE SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT-PACKING INDUSTRY.

With the exception of the clerical forces, immigrant employees are found in practically all of the occupations in the packing industry. A large proportion of the foremen are immigrants, and a foreman of foreign birth usually has working under him employees of his own race. This is encouraged by the employers, who find that better work is accomplished when the races are thus gathered together in groups.

DAILY EARNINGS.

As regards the earnings of the employees of the South Omaha slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, the following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of male employees who were 18 years of age or over and who were earning each specified amount per day.

TABLE 274.—Per cent of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the 4,131 male employees included in this table, 98 per cent earn $1.50 or over, 46.2 per cent $2 or over, 20.2 per cent $2.50 or over, and only 7.5 per cent as high as $3 per day. Little difference is shown between the proportions of the nativity groups earning each specified rate up to $2, beyond which the native-born negroes show the largest and the foreign-born the smallest proportion. Of the several foreign-born races, the proportion earning $3 or over per day ranges from 10.5 per cent of the German to none of the Japanesethe entire number of the Japanese earn between $1.75 and $3 per

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day. The proportion of each race earning $2 or over ranges from 71.7 per cent of the Swedes to 8.6 per cent of the Roumanians.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day:

TABLE 275.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per day, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Out of 199 male employees, 99 per cent are earning $1 or over per day; 82.4 per cent $1.25 or over; 56.3 per cent earn $1.50 or over; 35.7 per cent $1.75 or over; while 7.5 per cent earn $2 or over per day. No marked difference appears in the amounts earned by the different

groups.

RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

The extent to which the efficiency of the foreign-born employees is increased after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the following table:

TABLE 276.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per day, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

From the percentages of the above table it appears that a larger proportion of Bohemians and Moravians who have been in the United States from five to nine years than of those who have been here under five years, and a larger proportion of those who have been here ten years or over than of those who have been here from five to nine years, earn each of the amounts specified per day, with the exception of the lowest amount.

Of the Germans who have been in the United States ten years or over 12.4 per cent, as compared with none of those who have been here less than ten years, earn a daily wage of $3 or over. A larger proportion of individuals who have been here from five to nine years than of those who have been here under five years earn $1.75 or over, $2 or over, and $2.50 or over, per day, respectively; and a larger proportion of those who have been here ten years or over than of those who have been here from five to nine years earn $2 or over daily. The proportion of German employees earning daily $1.50 or over, $1.75 or over, and $2.50 or over, respectively, is larger among those who have been in this country from five to nine years than among those who have been here ten years or over.

The proportion of Poles whose daily earnings are $2 or over, $2.50 or over, and $3 or over, respectively, is largest for individuals who have been in the United States ten years or over, and smallest for those who have been here under five years. Of the Poles earning daily $1.50 or over, and $1.75 or over, the proportion is largest for individuals who have been here from five to nine years, second largest for those who have been here under five years, and smallest for those who have been here ten years or over.

The following table shows, by race of individual and length of residence in the United States, the comparative daily earnings of foreign-born male employees who were 18 years of age or over:

TABLE 277.-Comparative earnings per day of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more males reporting.]

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

A comparison of the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and Poles who have been in the United States less than five years, from five to nine years, and ten years or over discloses the fact that the proportion of each race earning each specified amount, increases as a general rule with the period of residence. It will also be noted that of those who have been in the United States less than five years and ten years or over the proportion of Bohemians and Moravians earning $2 or over and $2.50 or over per day exceeds the proportion of Germans or Poles, in the order named, while of those who have been in the United States from five to nine years the Bohemians and Moravians earning $2 per day show a slightly larger proportion than do the Poles or Germans. The Germans, on the other hand, with this period of residence, show a considerably larger proportion earning $2.50 or over per day than do the Bohemians and Moravians or Poles. None of the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, or Poles who have been in the United States less than five years, none of the Germans, and less than 1 per cent each of the Bohemians and Moravians or Poles who have been in the United States from five to nine years earn $3 or over per day, as compared with 11.6 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians, 12.4 per cent of the Germans, and 6.3 per cent of the Poles who have been in the United States ten years or over.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES.

The table next presented shows the number and per cent of the husbands of the families studied who were at work and their average annual earnings. The exhibit is by general nativity and race of husband.

TABLE 278.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

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From the data secured for this locality, as shown in the above table, it appears that all but a fraction of 1 per cent of the husbands are at work and that the average income of husbands at work is $588. All of the native-born husbands are at work, and a considerably

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