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TABLE 285.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see p. 413. Of the selected families, only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

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This column includes 2 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed owing to small number involved.

The data presented in the above tables show that the wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers in 12 per cent of all families studied in this locality; also that the proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers is lowest in families where the earnings of husband are $600 or over, slightly higher in families where the earnings of husband are under $400, and highest in families where the earnings of husband are $400 and under $600. The proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers is much larger among the foreign-born than among the native-born families. Comparing the several foreign-born races, it will be seen that the Poles have by far the largest, while the Bohemians and Moravians have the smallest, proportion of families with wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers. The Lithuanian families report 6.1 per cent and German families 5.6 per cent. Each show a considerably larger proportion than the Bohemians and Moravians.

Among the Polish families the proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is largest where the earnings of husband are $400 and under $600 and smallest where the earnings of husband are $600 or over. The proportion of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers is largest among the German and Lithuanian families where the earnings of husband are $600 or over and among the Bohemian and Moravian families where the earnings of husband are $400 and under $600.

No Bohemian and Moravian wives where the husband's earnings are under $400, no German wives where husbands earn $400 and less than $600, and no native white wives where husband's earnings are equal to or in excess of $600 have employment or keep boarders or lodgers.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The extent to which the families of the employees of the slaughtering and meat-packing establishments in South Omaha depend upon different sources of income is set forth in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources.

TABLE 286.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 319 families studied, nearly all have an income from the earnings of the husband, and less than 1 per cent have income from the earnings of the wife. The proportion of families who have an income from the contributions of children is larger than of those who have an income from the payments of boarders or lodgers, but smaller than of those having an income from husband. The nativeborn families show a larger proportion than do the foreign-born of families having an income from wife, but in each other specified source of income the foreign-born show the largest proportions.

Both the German and Lithuanian races show 100 per cent of all families studied who have an income from earnings of husband. All the races reporting show large proportions having income from this source, the native white, with 94.6 per cent, being the smallest.

The native white and foreign-born German are the only races having income from earnings of wife, and in each case the proportion is very small.

Contributions from children appear in larger proportions among the German families studied than among any others. Compared with the 41.8 per cent of the German families having income from this source is the 6.1 per cent of the Lithuanians, the race showing the smallest proportion. The proportion of Bohemian and Moravian families who have income from children is almost as large as for the Germans. The native whites show the third highest proportion. Payments of boarders or lodgers appear in larger proportions among the Polish than among any other race. While all of the other

races studied report some families who have income from this source, the proportion is in every case, except that of the Poles, very small. None of the races studied show a proportion as high as 10 per cent of families who have income from sources other than those just named. The German race shows the largest proportion of families having income from sources other than those specified, the Polish second, followed by the Bohemians and Moravians and the Lithuanians, the native whites showing the smallest proportion.

The following table shows the sources of family income in detail, each specified source of family income being exclusive of all other

sources:

TABLE 287.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of

family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the families in this locality for which data were secured the majority have their entire income from the husband. A considerable proportion of the families derive the entire income from the husband and children, and a much smaller proportion depend entirely upon the children or the husband, wife, and children.

The proportion of families having the entire income from the husband, the children or sources or combinations of sources not specified is greater in the case of the native-born than in the case of the foreignborn. None of the native-born families, as against a small proportion of the foreign-born, receive the entire income from the husband and boarders or lodgers.

Of the foreign-born the Lithuanians have the largest and the Poles the smallest proportion of families receiving the entire income from the husband, and a much larger proportion of the Germans and Bohemians and Moravians than of the Poles and Lithuanians, receive the entire income from the husband and children. The proportion of families deriving the entire income from the husband and boarders or lodgers is much larger for the Poles than for any other race.

There is but little difference, as between the races, in the proportion of families having the entire income from sources or combinations of sources not specified.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The last table submitted in this connection by setting forth the per cent of total yearly family income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, according to general nativity and race of head of family, exhibits the relative importance of the different sources of family income.

TABLE 288.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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The data presented in the above table show that among the families of this locality for which information was secured, 72.4 per cent of the total yearly income is derived from the earnings of husband, 22.8 per cent from the contributions of children, and only a very small proportion from the earnings of wife, the payments of boarders or lodgers, or from sources not specified. The native-born families derive a larger proportion of the total income from the earnings of husband and a smaller proportion from the contributions of children than do the foreign-born families.

Of the foreign-born, the Lithuanians derive a considerably larger proportion of the total yearly income from earnings of husband and a much smaller proportion from the contributions of children than do the other foreign-born races, the Bohemians and Moravians, closely followed by the Germans, reporting the largest proportion of the total yearly income from contributions of children. From the payments of boarders or lodgers 12.6 per cent of the total yearly income of the Poles is obtained, a proportion larger than that shown by any other race. As regards the native white it will be noted that the per cent of total yearly income derived from earnings of husband is slightly smaller, while the per cent derived from contributions of children is much larger, than the proportion of yearly income reported by the Lithuanians.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Hours of work-Methods of wage payments-Regularity of employment-Liability to accident-Relations between the different immigrant races-Relative efficiency of immigrants and natives-Organized labor and labor disputes-The immigrant and organized labor-[Text Tables 289 and 290 and General Table 181].

HOURS OF WORK.

During the year 1908 the average number of hours of all male employees in one large representative packing establishment in South Omaha was 9.18 and of all female employees 8.45 each day. This is the time for which they were actually paid, although it should be stated in passing that in several of the occupations the employees are on duty for a much longer time than that for which they receive compensation. Positions on the killing beds are an example of this condition. The employees are required to wait until the supply of stock is ready to be passed into their department and on some occasions these delays are for several hours at a time.

METHODS OF WAGE PAYMENTS.

In practically all occupations in the packing industry in South Omaha wage payments are made on the piece basis. During the year 1908 the average daily wage received by all male employees was $1.88 and the average daily wage received by all female employees was $1.25.

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

As regards the regularity of employment offered, the following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the months worked during past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home. By the term past year is meant the twelve months immediately preceding the date of the collection of the data.

TABLE 289.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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