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should from thence receive a better form of living." King Henry also at the same time " sent a transcript of the instruments of all the archbishops and bishops of Ireland, unto pope Alexander, who by his apostolical authority (for so was it in those days of darkness esteemed to be) did confirm the kingdom of Ireland unto him and his heirs, according to the form of the instruments of the archbishops and bishops of Ireland, and made them kings thereof for ever.” The king also obtained further from pope Alexander, “that it might be lawful for him to make which of his sons he pleased king of Ireland, and to crown him accordingly; and to subdue the kings and great ones of that land, which would not subject themselves unto him.” Whereupon, in a grand council held at Oxford in the year of our Lord MCLXXVII. “ before the bishops and peers of the kingdom he constituted his son John king of Ireland, according to that grant and confirmation of pope Alexander.” And to make the matter yet more sure, in the year MCLXXXVI. he obtained a new license from pope Urban the third, “ that one of his sons, whom he himself would, should be crowned for the

d Rex Angliæ misit transcriptum chartarum universorum archiepiscoporum et episcoporum Hiberniæ, ad Alexandrum papam: et ipse authoritate apostolica confirmavit illi et hæredibus suis regnum Hiberniæ, secundum formam chartarum archiepiscoporum et episcoporum Hiberniæ. Rog. Hoveden.

e Nam summus pontifex regnum illud sibi et hæredibus suis auctoritate apostolica confirmavit : et in perpetuum eos constituit inde reges. Jo. Brampton.

Perquisierat ab Alexandro summo pontifice, quod liceret ei filium suum quem vellet regem Hiberniæ facere, et similiter coronare ; ac reges et potentes ejusdem terræ qui subjectionem ei facere nollent, debellare. Id. ad ann. 1177.

& Johannem filium suum coram episcopis et regni sui principibus regem Hi. berniæ constituit. Id. ibid. et Gualterus Coventrenșis, in ejusdem anni historia.

h Constituit Johannem filium suum regem in Hibernia, concessione et confirmatione Alexandri summi pontificis. Rog. Hoveden. annal. part. 2. ad ann. 1177.

Ab eo impetravit; quod unus quem vellet de filiis suis coronaretur de regno Hiberniæ, et hoc confirmavit ei dominus papa bulla sua : et in argumentum voluntatis et confirmationis suæ, misit ei coronam de penna pavonis auro contextam, Id. ad ann. 1185.

kingdom of Ireland.” And this the pope did not only confirm by his bull, but also the year following purposely sent over cardinal Octavian and Hugo de Nunant (or Novant) hisk legates into Ireland, to crown John the king's son there.

By all this we may see, how far king Henry the second proceeded in this business: which I do not so much note, to convince the stolidity of O Sullevan, who would fain persuade fools that he was preferred only to be collector of the pope's Peter-pence; as to shew, that Ireland at that time was esteemed a kingdom, and the kings of England accounted no less than kings thereof. And therefore Paul' the fourth needed not make all that noise, and troublem the whole court of heaven with the matter, when in the year MDLV. he took upon him by his apostolical authority (such I am sure, as none of the apostles of Christ did ever assume unto themselves) to erect Ireland unto the title and dignity of a kingdom. Whereas he might have found, even in his own Roman" provincial, that Ireland was reckoned among the kingdoms of Christendom before he was born. Insomuch, that in the year MCCCCXVII. when the legates of the king of England and the French king's ambassadors fell at variance in the council of Constance for precedency; the English orators, among

k Quibus ipse commisit legatiam in Hiberniam, ad coronandum ibi Johannem filium regis. Sed dominus rex coronationem illam distulit. Id. ad ann. 1187.

| Paulus IV. nostris temporibus Hiberniam insulam in regni titulum ac dignitatem erexit. Gabutius in vita Pii V.

m Ad omnipotentis Dei laudem et gloriam, ac gloriosissimæ ejus genitricis Virginis Mariæ, totiusque curiæ cælestis honorem, et fidei catholicæ exaltationem, Philippo rege et Maria regina nobis super hoc humiliter supplicantibus, de fratrum nostrorum consilio et apostolicæ potestatis plenitudine, apostolica authoritate insulam Hiberniæ in regnum perpetuo erigimus; ac titulo, dignitate, honore, facultatibus, juribus, insigniis, prærogativis, antelationibus, præeminentiis regiis, ac quibus alia Christi fidelium regna utuntur, potiuntur, et gaudent, ac uti, potiri, et gaudere poterunt quomodo libet, in futurum insignimus et decoramus. Bulla Pauli IV. in Rotulo patentium, ann. 2. et 3. Philippi et Mariæ, in Cancellaria Hiberniæ.

n Provinciale ex archivis Cancellariæ apostolicæ edit. tomo 2. Tractat. Doctor. fol. 344. (impress. Venet. ann. 1548.)

other arguments, alleged this also for themselves : “ Ito is well known, that according to Albertus Magnus and Bartholomæus, in his book De proprietatibus rerum, the whole world being divided into three parts (to wit, Asia, Africa and Europe) Europe is divided into four kingdoms, namely, the Roman for the first, the Constantinopolitan for the second, the third the kingdom of Ireland, which is now translated unto the English, and the fourth the kingdom of Spain. Whereby it appeareth, that the king of England and his kingdom are of the more eminent ancient kings and kingdoms of all Europe, which prerogative the kingdom of France is not said to obtain.” And this have I here inserted the more willingly, because it maketh something for the honour of my country, to which, I confess, I am very much devoted, and in the printed acts of the council it is not commonly to be had.

But now cometh forth O Sullevan again, and like a little fury flieth upon the English-Irish priests of his own religion, which in the late rebellion of the Earl of Tyrone did “not deny that hellish doctrine, fetched out of hell for the destruction of Catholics, that it is lawful for Catholics to bear arms and fight for heretics against Catholics and their country;" or rather, if you will have it in plainer terms, that it is lawful for them of the Romish religion, to bear arms and fight for their sovereign and fellow-subjects that are of another profession, against those of their own religion that traitorously rebel against their

• Satis constat, secundum Albertum Magnum et Bartholomæum de proprietatibus rerum, quod toto mundo in tres partes diviso (videlicet Asiam, Africam, et Europam) Europa in quatuor dividitur regna: primum videlicet Romanum, secundum Constantinopolitanum, tertium regnum Hiberniæ quod jam translatum est in Anglicos, et quartum regnum Hispaniæ. Ex quo patet, quod rex Angliæ et regnum suum sunt de eminentioribus antiquioribus regibas et regnis totius Europæ : quam prærogativam regnum Franciæ non fertur obtinere. Act. Concil. Constant. Sess. 28. MS. in bibliotheca regia.

p Cujus mali maxima culpa in aliquot Anglo Ibernos sacerdotes jure transfe. renda est; qui tartareum dogma ab Orco in catholicorum perniciem emissum non negabant, licere catholicis contra catholicos et suam patriam pro hæreticis gerere arma et dimicare. Philip O Sullevan. hist. Catholic. Iberniæ, tom. 4. lib. 3. cap. 5. fol. 263. edit. Ulissipon. ann. 1621.

prince and country; and to shew “ how? mad and how venomous a doctrine they did bring (these be the caitiff's own terms) that exhorted the laity to follow the queen's side;" he setteth down the censure of the doctors of the university of Salamanca and Valladolid, published in the year MDCIII. for the justification of that rebellion, and the declaration of pope Clement the eighth's letters touching the same, wherein he signifieth that “the English ought to be set upon no less than the Turks, and imparteth the same favours unto such as set upon them, that he doth unto such as fight against the Turks.” Such wholesome directions doth the bishop of Rome give unto those that will be ruled by him : far different (I wiss) from that holy doctrine, wherewith the Church of Rome was at first seasoned by the apostles: " Let' every soul be subject unto the higher powers; for there is no power but of God," was the lesson that St. Paul taught to the ancient Romans. Where if it be demanded, " whether that power also, which persecuteth the servants of God, impugneth the faith, and subverteth religion, be of God?” our countryman Sedulius will teach us to answer with Origen, that “even such a power as that, is given of God, for the revenge of the evil, and the praise of the good;" although he were as wicked as either Nero among the Romans, or Herod among the Jews: the one whereof

9 Hæc est academiarum censura ; qua liquido constat, quanta ignoratione et caligine erraverint illi Iberni, qui in hoc bello Protestantibus opem tulerunt, et catholicos oppugnarunt; quamque insanam et venenosam doctrinam attulerint nonnulli doctiores vulgo habiti, qui sæculares homines ad reginæ partes sequendas exhortati, a fide tuenda averterunt. Id. tom. 3. lib. 8. cap. 7. fol. 204.

r Cum enim pontifex dicat Anglos adversus catholicam religionem pugnare, eosque non minus ac Turcas oppugnari debere ; eisdemque gratiis eos oppugnantes prosequatur, quibus contra Turcas pugnantes prosequitur : quis dubitet, bellum ab Anglis adversus exercitum catholicum omnino iniquum geri ? Censur. Doct. Salmantic, et Vallisolet. de Hiberniæ bello. * Rom. cap. 13. ver. 1.

' Quid et illa potestas, quæ servos Dei persequitur, fidem impugnat, religionem subvertit, a Deo est ? Ad quod respondendum, quod etiam talis potestas a Deo data est, ad vindictam quidem malorum, laudem vero bonorum. Sedul. in Rom. cap. 13.

most cruelly persecuted the Christians, the other Christ himself.

And yet when the one of them swayed the sceptre, St. Paul told the Christian Romans, that they “ must' needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake:" and of the causeless fear of the other, these verses of Sedulius are solemnly sung in the Church of Rome, even unto this day:

Herodes hostis impie,
Christum venire quid times ?
Non eripit mortalia,
Qui regna dat cælestia.

Why, wicked Herod, dost thou fear

And at Christ's coming frown?
The mortal he takes not away,

That gives the heavenly crown.

a better paraphrase whereof you cannot have, than this which Claudius hath inserted into his collections


St. Matthew: “ That* king which is born, doth not come to overcome kings by fighting, but to subdue them after a wonderful manner by dying: neither is he born to the end that he may succeed thee, but that the world may faithfully believe in him. For he is come, not that he may fight being alive, but that he may triumph being slain; nor that he may with gold get an army unto himself out

u Rom. cap. 13. ver. 5.
w Sedul. in Hymno acrostich. de vita Christi.

* Rex iste qui natus est, non venit reges pugnando superare, sed moriendo mirabiliter subjugare : neque ideo natus est ut tibi succedat, sed ut in eum mundus fideliter credat. Venit enim, non ut regnet vivus, sed ut triumphet occisus : nec sibi de aliis gentibus auro exercitum quærat; sed ut pro salvandis gentibus pretiosum sanguinem fundat. Inaniter invidendo timuisti successorem, quem credendo debuisti quærere salvatorem ; quia si in eum crederes, cum eo regnares ; et sicut ab illo accepisti temporale regnum, acciperes etiam sempiternum. Hujus enim pueri regnum non est de hoc mundo ; sed per ipsum regnatur in hoc mundo. Ipse est etiam sapientia Dei, quæ dicit in proverbiis : Per me reges regnant. Puer iste verbum Dei est, puer iste virtus et sapientia Dei est. Si potes, contra Dei sapientiam cogita : in tuam perniciem versaris, et nescis. Tu enim regnum nullatenus habuisses, nisi ab isto puero qui nunc natus est accepisses. Claud. lib. 1. in Matth.

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