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From the .\Iiniaturr- by Samuel Cooper, in the Royal collection at \\'indsor Castle

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flank had been decided by the necessity of picking up his artillery in Yorkshire—Cromwell, for the first time in his life, developed strategical power, that is to say, the power of combining movements, the result of which would place the enemy in a false position. Already, before he followed Lambert, he had summoned Harrison to Linlithgow, and had ordered him to keep the Scots in check as they marched through England.

The first rumour that the Scottish army had broken up from Stirling and was on its way to the south reached Cromwell on August I. On the 2nd, leaving 6,000 men under Monk—a soldier well tried in the Irish wars—

to complete the subjugation—he started in pursuit. “ The enemy,” he wrote to Lenthall, “ in his desperation and fear, and out of inevitable necessity, is run to try what he can do this way.” Cromwell was never less taken by surprise. “I do apprehend," he continued, “that if he goes for

England, being some few days’ march before us, it will trouble some men’s thoughts, and may occasion some men’s inconveniences, of which I hope we are as deeply sensible, and have been, and I trust shall be as diligent to prevent as any. And indeed this is our comfort that in simplicity of heart as towards God we have done to the best of our judgments, knowing that if some issue were not put to this business it would occasion another winter’s war to the ruin of your soldiery, for whom the Scots are too hard in respect of enduring the winter difficulties of this country, and would have been under the endless expense of the treasure of England in prosecuting this war. It may be supposed we might have kept the enemy from this by interposing between him and England, which truly I believe we might; but how to remove him out of this place without doing what we have done, unless we had a commanding army on both sides of the river of Forth, is not clear to us ;_ or how to answer the inconveniences above mentioned we understand not. We pray, therefore, that — seeing there is a probability for the enemy to put you to some trouble—you would, with the same

courage grounded upon a confidence in God, wherein you have been

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