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PREFACE.

always at hand the details of several hundred experiments, covering the ground of an extensive course of chemical lectures.

The student of this manual is supposed to be already acquainted with the rudiments of physics. The chemist must often depend upon physical properties for his means of characterizing the numerous substances with which he deals, and he is nearly concerned with the physical properties of gases and vapors; but chemistry has now so wide a scope and so great an importance as to deserve to be studied by itself, and not merely as an appendix to the subject of molecular physics.

Like all elementary text-books, this manual is a mere compilation; it embodies in a somewhat new form previously existing statements of well-recognized facts and principles which have become the common stock of the science. There is little original in the book, except its arrangement and method, in part, and its general tone. The authors have, of course, drawn largely from the invaluable compilations made by Gmelin, Otto, and Watts, and they have also availed themselves freely of the text-books of Stoeckhardt and Miller and the writings of Hofmann.

The book is not written in the interest of any particular theory or system of notation, but is intended to exhibit, so far as is possible within the limits proper to an elementary manual, the present state of the science.

The authors will feel very grateful to any one who will communicate to them errors, detected in using the book, or suggestions for its improvement.

TON, June 167.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The authors have thoroughly revised this second edition of their manual. Practical experience in using the book with two classes in the laboratory, the questions of students, and the suggestions of friends have enabled them to improve some of the detailed directions for experiments, and to make a few other changes and additions calculated to smooth difficulties or supply defects. Special pains have been taken to make the printing of this edition as accurate as possible.

Boston, December 1867.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

Introducticn.-Subject matter of Chemistry. Chemical change. Ana-
lysis and synthesis. Fact and theory . . . . . . . . .

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Chap. I.-Air. Atmospherio pressure. Properties.
mixture. Composition of air . . . . .

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Chap. II.-Oxygen. Preparation and properties of oxygen. Oxygen sap-
ports combustion. Oxides. Oxidation. Wide diffusion of oxygen . . .. 11-15

Chap. III.-Nitrogen. Preparation and properties of nitrogen .

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Chap. IV.-Water. Properties of water. The gramme. Specific gravity.
Specific heat. Ice. Steam. Analysis, electrolysis, and synthesis of water. Hye
drogen. Atoms and molecules. Molecular hypothesig. Atomic weights. Che-
mical combination. The chemical force. Water in nature. Distillation. Pre-
paration of pure water. Solution. Solution and chemical combination compared

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Chap. V.-Hydrogen. Preparation and properties of hydrogen. Symbola
Diffusion of gases. Diffusive power and inflammability of hydrogen. Heat
from burning hydrogen. Unit of heat. Oxyhydrogen blowpipe. Form of gas-
flames. Explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. Oxygen burns in hydrogen
as well as hydrogen in oxygen . . . .

. . . .

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Chap. VI.-Compounds of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Peroxide of
hydrogen. Nitric acid One of the meanings of the terms acid and alkaline.
Neutralization. Nitrous oxide. Composition of nitrous oxide. Atomic weight
of nitrogen. Properties of nitrous oxide. Nitric oxide. A test for free oxygen.
The terminations ous and ic. Hyponitric acid. Nitrous acid. Analysis of nit-io
scid. Synopsis of the oxides of nitrogen. Law of multiple proportions. Definito
and obscure chemical action. Air a mixture. Anhydrous and hydrated nitrio
acid. Ouidizing and reducing agents. Atomic weights and combining weights.
Molecular formula. Combining weight of nitric acid. Nitric acid reactions.
Nitrogen and hydrogen. Ammonia. Analysis and synthesis of ammonia.
Nascent state. Composition of ammonia. Ammonium. Salts of ammonium.
Sources of ammonia. Ammonia-water. Empirical and rational formule. Dus-
listic formulæ. Typical formul. Uses of symbolic formu. . . . .

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Chap. VIJ.-Chlorhydric acid. Properties, analysis, and composition of
chlorhydric acid. Atomic weight of chlorine. Synthesis of chlorhydric acid.
Manufacture of chlorhydric acid. Practical application of chemical equations,
Chemical affinity. Preparation and uses of chlorhydric acid. Aqua regia .

91-105

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Chap. XV.-Combination by volume. Synopsis of the gaseous compounds
previously studied. Condensation ratios. Combining-weight and volume-weight.
Double or product volume. Molecular condition of elementary guses. Mole-
cular formulæ . .

. .

. . . . . . . 203-209

Chap. XVI.-Phosphorus, Allotropic modifications of phosphorus. Fric-
tion matches. Phosphorescence. Solutions of phosphorus. Poisonous pro-
perties of phosphorus. Manufacture of phosphorus. Red phos; horus. Amor-
phous and crystallized red phosphorus. Safety-matches. Phosphorus with
oxidizing agents. Phosphuretted hydrogen. Preparation and analysis of phos-

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