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always at hand the details of several hundred experiments, covering the ground of an extensive course of chemical lectures.
The student of this manual is supposed to be already acquainted with the rudiments of physics. The chemist must often depend upon physical properties for his means of characterizing the numerous substances with which he deals, and he is nearly concerned with the physical properties of gases and vapors; but chemistry has now so wide a scope and so great an importance as to deserve to be studied by itself, and not merely as an appendix to the subject of molecular physics.
Like all elementary text-books, this manual is a mere compilation; it embodies in a somewhat new form previously existing statements of well-recognized facts and principles which have become the common stock of the science. There is little original in the book, except its arrangement and method, in part, and its general tone. The authors have, of course, drawn largely from the invaluable compilations made by Gmelin, Otto, and Watts, and they have also availed themselves freely of the text-books of Stoeckhardt and Miller and the writings of Hofmann.
The book is not written in the interest of any particular theory or system of notation, but is intended to exhibit, so far as is possible within the limits proper to an elementary manual, the present state of the science.
The authors will feel very grateful to any one who will communicate to them errors, detected in using the book, or suggestions for its improvement.
TON, June 167.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The authors have thoroughly revised this second edition of their manual. Practical experience in using the book with two classes in the laboratory, the questions of students, and the suggestions of friends have enabled them to improve some of the detailed directions for experiments, and to make a few other changes and additions calculated to smooth difficulties or supply defects. Special pains have been taken to make the printing of this edition as accurate as possible.
Boston, December 1867.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Introducticn.-Subject matter of Chemistry. Chemical change. Ana-
Chap. I.-Air. Atmospherio pressure. Properties.
Chap. II.-Oxygen. Preparation and properties of oxygen. Oxygen sap-
Chap. III.-Nitrogen. Preparation and properties of nitrogen .
Chap. IV.-Water. Properties of water. The gramme. Specific gravity.
Chap. V.-Hydrogen. Preparation and properties of hydrogen. Symbola
. . . .
Chap. VI.-Compounds of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Peroxide of
Chap. VIJ.-Chlorhydric acid. Properties, analysis, and composition of
Chap. VIII.-Chlorine. Preparation and properties of chlorine, Chlo.
Chap. XII.–Ozone and Antozone. Allotropism. Preparation and pro-
Chap. XIII.-Sulphur. Crystallization of sulphur. Crystalline structure.
Chap. XIV.-Selenium and Tellurium. Properties of selenium. Iso-
Chap. XV.-Combination by volume. Synopsis of the gaseous compounds
. . . . . . . 203-209
Chap. XVI.-Phosphorus, Allotropic modifications of phosphorus. Fric-