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PREFACE.

With the view of giving the British Navy Estimates for the current year, side by side with those of the leading maritime powers, it has been determined to postpone the publication of The Naval Annual to a later period of the year. It is hoped that the change will be approved, as facilitating those comparisons on which the policy of the Admiralty, as embodied in the Navy Estimates, must mainly depend.

It will not be necessary to enumerate once more in the Preface the ably-conducted and well-informed journals from which The Naval Annual is mainly compiled. It has been desired to acknowledge in each case in the body of the work the source from which matter has been borrowed.

As an annual summary of the events of the year, drawn from widely scattered sources, it is hoped that the compilation of The Naval Annual may be of real service to those interested in naval affairs.

The NEW PROGRAMME of construction is the great incident of the past year.

A forward movement on the part of the Naval Administration of the British Empire had become necessary in view of the active efforts of other Powers.

The year 1888 has been darkened by the loss of some distinguished ornaments of the naval profession. The members of Lord Northbrook's Board remember with affection their colleague, Sir Cooper Key. In Sir William Hewett the Navy has lost a great leader.

The distribution of work in the present volume is acknowledged on the title-page. The revision of the proofs has been undertaken by Mr. Barnes, with the assistance of Mr. J. Potter, the faithful secretary for many years of Lady Brassey.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

by Admiral Howe, 1782

Defence of communications–Our Mediterranean position in 1779—

Alternative routes to the East-Lord Randolph Churchill's

pressure—The frontier of the empire-First line of defence-

Command of the Channel

Early contests for supremacy-Necessary result of our communications

with the colonies being cut off — Naval war with sailing ships-

Security of communications

9-15

16-20

CHAPTER II.

RESOURCES AVAILABLE FOR MANNING THE FLEET.

Distribution of the Navy proper including marines Numbers of men

and officers increased as shown in Estimates for 1889-90—In-

sufficiency of lieutenants and engineers for war—Strength of the

Naval Reserve officers--Remedy for the deficiency of stokers-

Lieutenant Colwell's paper on Naval Reserves-Suggested reme-

dies for defects in present system of Naval Reserve

21-26

CHAPTER III.

1

ROYAL NAVAL ARTILLERY VOLUNTEERS, AND HOME DEFENCE.

Lieutenant Colwell on Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers—United

States Congress Bill for a Naval Militia-Admiralty views on the

Naval Volunteer movement-Number of ships captured by

privateers 1793–1815—Volunteer Home Defence Association

27-31

Memorial to the Prime Minister from the local committees on

the Clyde, the Forth, the Mersey, the Tyne, and the Tees, for the

defence of their coasts and commerce

Naval Volunteers for local defence of coaling stations-Sir Vesey

Hamilton's words of encouragement to the volunteers at Hong
Kong, on relinquishing his command in China

31-32

33-34

GERMAN, FRENCH, AND ENGLISH SYSTEMS OF COAST DEFENCE.

Reasons for transferring the German sea-coast defences to the single

control of the Navy-French system-Suggested alterations in
the British system-Submarine defence

35-37

SHIPBUILDING—RECENT CONSTRUCTION.

Ships launched, on the stocks, and ordered, in 1888--Great Britain,

France, Germany, Austria, United States, Chili, Argentine Con-
federation, Brazil, and Uruguay

38-47
Armoured ships: Great Britain,-Nile, Trafalgar, Victoria, and Sans

Pareil-Jubilee gift from the Navy to Her Majesty the Queen .. 47-61

Belted cruisers: Orlando type—Description of Orlando-Sir Arthur

Hood's evidence—Sir Anthony Hoskin's evidence-Mr. White's

evidence-Parliamentary return on Orlando as designed and as

completed ..

61-64

Armoured ships : France, Italy

, Germany, Spain, Russia, and United
States—Protected and unarmoured ships: Great Britain, France,
Germany, Russia, Spain, and United States ..

65-106
Gunboats: Great Britain-Torpedo flotilla, England, France, and

ly-Torpedo boats, England, France, Russia, Germany, and

Italy

.. 106-114

Submarine torpedo-boat-Nordenfelt submarine boat, description and

advantages-French submarine boat, Gymnote, description and

trials

.. 114-116

..

House of Commons Committee on the Navy estimates in 1888-Com-

mittee on designs 1871-Armoured versus unarmoured ships

Central citadel ship and unarmoured raft-Effect as to quick-

firing guns

117-120

High explosives-Raft body-Armour belt-Packing, and effect of


shells on packing-Uncertain extent of sinkage

.. 120-123

Description of Woodite

French armoured ships—Belted and pro-

tected ships compared-Table representing the two systems,
Compiler's views as to the kind of ships which should be built .. 123-128

THE NEW SHIPBUILDING PROGRAMME.

Lord George Hamilton's speech in the House of Commons 7th March,

1889—Gunboats for police purposes—Basis of the new programme

-Government responsibility-House of Commons Select Com-

mittee on new shipbuilding programme-How supremacy on the

sea must be measured-Effect of naval war on our commerce-

Margin of reserve

132-138

Dockyards and private yards compared–The story of the guns-

Designs of ships-Proposed expenditure in dockyards and by

contract-Time occupied in building each class of vessel-Ad-

vantages of building ships rapidly

139-144

Special accounts to be kept of ships built in dockyards and by contract

- Proportion of cost for the new programme_Summary of the

scheme Improved coaling facilities–Additional men for the

fleet-Naval reserve-New designs—Consultation for designs .. 144-148

The new battle-ships-Protection of commerce-Merchant cruiser-

Local defence-Naval Volunteers—First Lord's suggestions—The

Admiralty scheme must stand or fall as a whole ..

.. 148–152

Tabulated statement of ships which will be added to Her Majesty's

Navy between 1st April, 1889, and 1st April, 1894—Effective

ships afloat 1st January, 1889—Proposed standard in 1894–

Number required to bring present number to proposed standard
-Expenditure required to complete ships building and on ships
to be built-Comparison of expenditure on shipbuilding and
repairs for the four years ending 31st March, 1879, and the four
years ending 31st March, 1893

153-159

Mr. W. H. White's paper on the designs for the new battle-ships-

Dispositions of armaments—Sir Edward Reed's patent-Sir N.

Barnaby's patent-Disposition of armament in new designs,

Concentration of the armament—Number and calibre of heavy

guns—Weight of the auxiliary armament in the new ships .. 160-167

Increased complement of men-Armour protection of new turret-ship

design-Facts placed before the committee of naval officers-

Respective provinces of the naval architect and the naval officer 167–173

Extent of armour-belt in Admiral class and in the new designs,

Tabular statement of the water-line protection in a number of

British and foreign ships—Risks to ships below the armour-

Description of the barbette design-Barbettes versus turrets-

Hydraulic gun mountings

.. 173-181

Speed, model experiments--High speed in merchant ships-Coal

supply and endurance-Remarks on the size of new battle-ships-

Defence of constructive department—Tabulated particulars of

British and foreign battle-ships-Discussion on Mr. White's paper

-Sir E. J. Reed's speech : Times report

.. 181-201

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