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opportunities offered by her universities, are ever casting their longing eyes over the Rockies?

One of the leading New York magazines says in its editorial: “The Japanese dislike the Californians as heartily as the Californians dislike them.” The latter half of the sentence may contain some truth, but the former does not. Rightly or wrongly, the Japanese in California still believe that the agitation against them was started and is being engineered by a class of men whose conduct, public and private, most Californians deplore and denounce. To me their patience and goodnature appear almost surprising, considering the humiliating treatment to which they are constantly subjected. And, after all, there is no reason why they should not be good-natured, when they come to think of it. In spite of all the calumnies and insinuations which the Exclusion League heap upon them, the individual Californians are but too willing to deal with Japanese farmers and merchants.

One of the commonest charges brought against the Japanese in California is that, “ wherever they live, their presence depreciates the value of all adjacent property.” I do not wish to be dogmatic on this point, but shall simply quote the following passages from a letter written by Miss Alice M. Brown, a resident of Florin, to contradict the statement made by Collier's Weekly:

As to the decrease in land values that is another bald falsehood. The property has doubled in value within the last six years. Any realty man of Sacramento knows that this is the fact as well as the residents of this community (Florin) know that this is the fact. As for the Japanese neighbour, his industry on the land he tills enhances its value and increases ours in consequence. Adjoining my home is eighty acres which for all these

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years had never been touched by a plough—so sloughy and shallow was the land that the white man set it aside as only fit for a pasture. The Japanese turned it into the most beautiful vineyards and strawberry patches, and where the poorest of the poor soil lay is the finest berry patch in this vicinity. Neat little homes dot that once barren tract, and they are occupied by as good and kindly neighbours as we wish to have. Who is insane enough to believe that such a transformation from aridity to high productiveness would decrease the value of adjoining property?

There never has been one farm sold to get away from a Japanese neighbour. On the contrary, white families are coming in all the time and erecting homes. The fact that the Japanese are here enables the white man to secure the help to make good for himself. We do not object to the moral, industrious Japanese being our neighbour; we prefer him to ignorant, shiftless white men. The experience of many has shown that the white man is a failure as a tenant, the property becomes a wreck in his hands. The industrious Japanese will do the work and increase the value of the property. There are more whites in this community than there ever were before in its history."

Mr. Chester Rowell, editor of the Fresno Republican, harps upon the most deep-rooted prejudice of Californians when he opens his article in a recent issue of the World's Work with this sensational utterance of a farmer who was permitted to appear before a session of the California legislature:

“Up at Elk Grove, where I live, on the next farm a Japanese man lives, and a white woman. That woman is carrying around a baby in her arms. What is that baby? It isn't white. It isn't Japanese. I will tell you what it is—it is the beginning of the biggest problem that ever faced the American people!”

To understand why California is so averse to AmericanJapanese marriage one need only look at the Venus-like faces of her women and the features of her men as handsome as those of an Adonis. To give up such a beautiful woman to a homely Japanese instead of to a stately, courtly Californian must appear a sacrifice and a blasphemy. That is the only “biggest problem” involved in intermarriage between Japanese and Americans. But why should it be any problem at all when a Japanese man and an American woman could be happily united and can rear offspring as vigorous, as bright, and indeed as handsome as any child ? In Eastern States I have seen many Japanese-American children who are the favourites of the whole community in which they live. It is only when prejudice and snobbery obstruct one's discernment that one utters such hysterical cries as that raised by the Elk Grove farmer. Neither sons nor daughters born to American-Japanese couples will find any difficulty in marrying pure-blooded Americans. If the “biggest problem that ever faced the American people" will ever result from the presence of Japanese in this country, it is least likely to come from intermarriage.

In this age of human solidarity we can no longer adhere to such narrow views of intermarriage as are entertained by Californians. To the Eastward across the Rockies and to the Westward across the Pacific there are already a considerable number of Japanese married to Caucasian women. Such Japanese are forced to avoid California, however urgently their business or calling may require them to reside in that State. To place in an uncomfortable position such men as Dr. Takamine, of

New York, or Dr. Nitobe, of Tokyo, merely because their wives are Americans would be childish. Yet that is exactly what happens to such men when they travel in California. Instead of attempting to fan this popular prejudice against intermarriage, cannot the leading men of the Golden State be large-hearted enough to exert their wholesome influence for its dissipation? But I have already discussed this problem at length in the chapter on the Americanization of the Japanese, and I must pass on to another phase of the problem.

Dr. Edward A. Steiner, one of the foremost authorities on the immigration problem, in a recent address at St. Louis, sees the real menace for California not in Oriental immigration, but in the ebbing energy of its citizens. The pioneers of California who conquered all obstacles offered by nature, were energetic, undaunted, and willing to toil. But the present generation, Dr. Steiner points out, is beginning to seek pleasure, avoid parenthood, and shirk hard work. And many Californians plainly admit that their young men no longer soil their hands with the tilling of the earth, but migrate to cities in quest of gentleman's work and easy money. The effect of this tendency is clearly shown in the census of 1910, which records considerable decrease of the farm lands in California. Some American writers go even so far as to assert that this very symptom of weakness on the part of Californians is one of the causes which brought about the agitation against the Japanese. To us, however, the theory is open to question. The idea of setting up the bogie of superiority of an Asiatic people is too bizarre, to put it mildly, to be taken seriously.

At the same time, the Japanese, being human, have not been faultless. They may not have been as faithful

to contracts as they should have been. At any rate, it has become a fashion among Californians of a certain class to laud the honesty of the Chinese and deplore the "dishonesty” of the Japanese. Yet we must remember that when California was trying to exclude the Chinese they had no hesitation in assailing the “dishonesty" of the Chinese in the most vehement terms, in comparison with which their present criticism of Japanese lack of business honour seems a tame affair. When we are bent upon attaining a certain end, our sense of justice does not prevent us from resorting to exaggeration and misrepresentation in order to attain that end.

Again, the Japanese may have appeared too proud, although the Japanese themselves seem totally unconscious of the fact. Their apparent " cockiness" is nothing but their innocent efforts to conform to the customs and manners which they have been constantly told to respect by the very men who now attack their cockiness. And besides, there are many educated and well-bred Japanese who were disciplined in the deportment commonly observed among the upper classes in their native country. In the words of Mr. Walter V. Woehlke, of the Sunset Magazine, “this cockiness is but the expression of the poise and dignity that is one of the finest features of the Japanese national character.” When, therefore, a Japanese acts as a well-bred American would act, he has no intention to offend anybody, no desire to put on airs, no idea to challenge the superiority of any man under the

To him it is perfectly natural and spontaneous to respect and conform to the customs of any foreign country where he may come to live. This spontaneous feeling even overcomes his innate dislike of black frockcoat and high silk hat, which, though adopted in Japan as proper costume in formal functions, were undoubtedly

sun.

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