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little reason to cherish prejudice against these newcomers from the Orient. Many of the early immigrants from Japan wore the kimono, which to the Americans on the mainland would seem all too exotic, not to say indecent. But to those who had been accustomed to see the native Hawaiians with almost no dress but what nature bestowed upon them, even the flowing national costume of Nippon seemed a mark of advanced civilization. The missionaries, properly shocked by the nakedness of the aborigines, introduced a peculiar costume, consisting of long skirts and high waists, with no underwear. Even this simple apparel was detested by these children of nature who would go naked even for decent attendance at church. The time is still in the memory of many Americans when the natives brought on Sunday all their clothing in a bundle to the door of the church where they dressed, and after service doffing their costume, carried it homeward under their arms. Nothing, therefore, which the Orientals did in the islands appeared to the American residents either exotic or indecent.

The fact that the American community of Hawaii is essentially an aristocratic community is also no doubt responsible for the absence of race hatred. Besides the missionaries the predominating factor in the American population in the Territory consists of sugar planters. Beneath these men of wealth and luxury there is no class in the social scale of Hawaii but the mass of human atoms employed on their plantations as farm hands. Even the descendants of missionaries are living comfortably if not luxuriously, on the estates bequeathed by their fathers, many of whom acquired extensive tracts of land under the old régime, when land could be secured for a ridiculously small price. Thus those on the upper

rounds of the social ladder could with complacency look at those at its foot, for they felt sure that their supremacy and superiority could never be challenged by the latter. We know that it is exactly such a gulf between the rich and the poor which in democratic countries causes the social war, the conflict between capital and labour. But in a country where the labouring class is completely dominated by the capitalist class and has not yet awakened to the consciousness of its potential power, the very gulf serves to strengthen the position of the wealthy class. This is exactly the condition in Hawaii. Those Americans who constitute Hawaii's aristocracy, or plutocracy, if you will, are too confident of their superiority to hate those races who are hewing wood and drawing water for them. For people begin to hate other races only when they are doubtful of their own superiority. The Southern aristocrat never hated the negro; it was only those poor whites who were not so sure of their superiority that hated him.

When Oriental labour was introduced into the archipelago there was no white labour with which it could come in competition. True there were Portuguese who were paid higher wages than Oriental labourers, but the plantations were always suffering from labour famine to such an extent that neither the Japanese nor the Chinese ever displaced any Portuguese. This absence of competition among labourers of different races is undoubtedly one of the facts which account for the amicable relations existing among the many races in the Territory.

Chinese were the first alien labourers brought to the islands in large numbers. But before the advent of the celestials Caucasian blood had already left its impress on the native Hawaiians. Whether that impress was for

the good or for the evil of the natives it is difficult to say. Those Caucasians who came in promiscuous contact with Hawaiian women were no doubt mostly debauching sailors, whose boast was that they had their wives in every port where their boats stopped. The evil influence of such libertines can readily be understood if we only recall that the natives were the offspring of the animal rather than of the intellectual faculties, governed by traditional customs of a very low order, and leading a life of idleness and enervation, content with what voluntary gifts the bountiful Nature of the tropics might have to offer them. The moral effects of such influence were deplorable enough, but the physical degeneration into which it led the natives was even more alarming. It introduced vices and diseases previously unknown among the Hawaiians. Without ascribing the rapid decrease of the native population solely to the injection of such evils, it may well be said that the natives would have been better off, had they been immune from the influence inevitably resulting from Hawaii's geographical position as the rendezvous of innumerable whalers and merchant vessels.

After the seafaring Caucasians came the Chinese. With the growth of the sugar industry Hawaii felt the necessity of importing Oriental labour. In 1865 the Royal Government of Hawaii commissioned Dr. William Hillebrand to go to China and obtain labour for plantations. The commissioner came back in the autumn of the same year, bringing with him some 200 Chinese. That was the first assisted immigration of Chinese to Hawaii. From that time the Chinese population grew steadily until in 1900 it reached 25,762. From that high water-mark it declined gradually until to-day it numbers 21,674.

The most significant thing about the Chinese in Hawaii is that they freely married natives, thus creating a new type of composite race. It is commonly admitted that the children of Chinese-Hawaiian marriages “combine the kindly, generous disposition of the Hawaiian race with the honesty, domesticity, perseverance, frugality, and business acumen of the Chinese." And yet it would seem highly doubtful whether the intellectual quality of the Chinese could be improved by fusing his blood with that of a race to which the world is like a great playground or a dreamland, where no one need toil severely or cherish any aspiration for higher attainments. Intermarriage can result in mutual benefit only when contracted between members of races whose respective civilizations and cultures are on a similar, if not the same, plane or stage. A race which has an intensely cultivated civilization cannot with advantage fuse with another race which has not yet fully emerged from a primitive state of culture.

With the decline of the Chinese population Portuguese were brought in in increasingly large numbers. Along with the Portuguese Japanese were also imported, to be followed by Porto Ricans, and in recent periods by Filipinos and Russians.

From the numerical point of view the future principal races of Hawaii may be the Japanese and Portuguese, for the fecundity of one is just as great as that of the other. At present there are only 22,303 Portuguese as against 79,674 Japanese, but hereafter the number of Portuguese and Spanish will increase rapidly, as it is the policy of the Territorial Government to assist in the importation of Portuguese and Spanish in families. This policy has already been practised for the past five years, during which the Government brought

5,288 Spanish and 4,962 Portuguese. The only setback to this policy is that these European immigrants cannot be tied to the plantations, as are the Japanese. While the Japanese are forbidden to migrate from Hawaii to the mainland, there are no such restrictive laws applicable to European immigrants. The result is that many of the Spanish and Portuguese imported at great cost leave the islands at the first convenient opportunity for continental United States, where they can earn higher wages. In spite of this drawback the Spanish and Portuguese will no doubt increase much more rapidly than hitherto, if the Government continues the present policy.

On the other hand the “gentlemen's agreement concluded between Tokyo and Washington in 1907 effectively checked Japanese immigration. During the past four years the number of Japanese departures from the islands has been much larger than that of Japanese arrivals. The Japanese population in the archipelago would, therefore, decrease as steadily as has the Chinese, if it were not for the fact that under the same agreement the Japanese now in the islands are permitted to send for their wives whom they left in Japan. As they realize the advantage of remaining permanently in the Territory they will avail themselves of this right and are making homes with their helpmeets who come from Japan to join them. This cannot but result in increasing Hawaiian-born Japanese. At the same time it is highly doubtful that the Japanese population will increase at the same rate as the births of Japanese children. Some of the native-born Japanese will go to Japan, but the more important fact is that these Japanese, being American citizens by reason of birth, are free to migrate to continental United States. This privilege of citizenship they will undoubtedly utilize freely,

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