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It should be borne in mind that the increase of resistance occasioned by rifling is not taken into the account, although it makes an important
item against the Armstrong guns.
These figures exhibit (in a sensible form) the calibres, and the lengths of the charges of powder, as given in the preceding table, and used
in the Columbiad and Armstrong guns respectively.
Form and proportions intended to be given to a rifled gun by Mr. Treadwell in the year 1863. Experiment alone can determine the choice between the two forms of breech. · The President communicated, by title, the following paper, with some remarks upon Mr. Mann's botanical explorations in the Sandwich Islands.
Enumeration of Hawaian Plants. By HORACE MANN. During a visit to the Hawaian Islands, made for the purpose of studying especially the Botany of the Group, and which extended from the 4th of May, 1864, to the 18th of May, 1865, I botanized over five of the largest of these islands, and brought together a collection which forms the basis of the following Enumeration. In its preparation I have been permitted to examine the other collections of Hawaian plants in the Gray Herbarium ; namely, that by the United States South Pacific Exploring Expedition under Commodore Wilkes, — the fullest hitherto made in these islands ; a set of the specimens gathered by Jules Remy under the auspices of the Paris Museum, given by that institution; some of Macrae's plants, given by the London Horticultural (now Royal Horticultural) Society; and a few of Gaudichaud's, Chamisso's, Douglas's, and Nuttall's. These materials, and all his own memoranda upon them, were freely offered to my use by Professor Gray, without whose friendly encouragement this enumeration would never have been undertaken, and could not have been accomplished.
The botanists who have collected at the Hawaian Islands, so far as known to me, are as follows:
David Nelson, who accompanied Captain Cook on his third voyage, and collected at the Islands in 1778-1779. The plants collected by him are stored at the British Museum, and, excepting a few Labiatæ, have scarcely been examined until recently.
ARCHIBALD MENZIES, a most indefatigable botanist and collector, visited the Islands with Vancouver in 1792, 1793, or 1794, or perhaps in each of these years, and made large and valuable collections, mostly on Hawaii. Sets of his plants are in the Hookerian, Smithian, and Banksian Herbaria.
ALBERT CHAMISSO accompanied Kotzebue in the voyage of Romanzoff, and collected principally on Oahu, late in each of the years 1816 and 1817. He published notes and descriptions of new species in the Linnæa, in conjunction with Schlechtendal. FREDERICK EscHSCHOLTZ was the physician of the expedition.
CHARLES GAUDICHAUD, as botanist of the expedition under Freycinet, in the Corvettes “Uranie ” and “ Physicienne,” visited the Islands in August, 1819. He returned to the Islands on the “ Bonite” in 1836. The results of his first expedition were published as the Botanique du Voyage de l'Uranie, in 1826 (as on title-page, but really not appearing till 1830), in 1 vol. 4to, with a folio atlas. Of the collections of the second visit a few plates of Hawaian plants appeared in a folio atlas (Bot. Voy. Bonite, bearing no date), without descriptions, or any clew to localities. The lower Cryptogams were elaborated and in part figured by the late Dr. Montagne in the same work.
JAMES MACRAE collected for the London Horticultural Society, in Brazil, Chili, and the Hawaian Islands, which last he visited in 1825. His specimens were mainly distributed to the herbaria of Bentham, Hooker, Lindley, and De Candolle.
Messrs. LAY & COLLIE, who accompanied Captain Beechey during the Voyage of the “ Blossom,” visited the Islands in 1826 - 1827, and made the collections which formed the basis of the botany of this voyage by Hooker and Arnott.
Francis Julius FERDINAND MEYEN accompanied Captain W. Wendt, on the Prussian vessel “Princess Louise,” and visited these islands in 1831. After his death, descriptions of species collected by him were published as a volume of the Nov. Act. Acad. Cæs. Leop.Carol. Nat. Cur., in 1843, here cited as the Reliquiæ Meyenianæ.
David Douglas, as collector sent out by the London Horticultural Society to N. W. America, closed his most important explorations by a visit to the Hawaian Islands, which he reached in the last week in the year 1833. He immediately went to Hawaii, where he collected until the 12th of May, when he met a violent death on the flanks of Mauna Kea. His collections are mainly in the herbaria of the Royal Horticultural Society, and of Hooker, Bentham, and Lindley.
BARCLAY was botanist on the “Sulphur,” commanded by Sir Edward Belcher, and visited the Islands in 1837 or 1839.
Rev. John DIELL was American Seaman's Chaplain at Honolulu, and sent small collections to Prof. Asa Gray, which he communicated to Sir W. J. Hooker.
W. D. BRACKENRIDGE and CHARLES PICKERING made almost all the botanical collections on the United States South Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Charles Wilkes, at least those at the