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verb ever transitive ? We do not mean by this question to imply that it is not, but the preposition àvá justifies us in raising the question, and at least asking for the proof. On examining the passage referred to in Herodotus, the word is found four times, and in no one of them is it used with an accusative, expressed or understood. Now, this error could not have occurred, had the field of inquiry been properly narrowed in the lexicographer's mind, by a thorough understanding of the force of the preposition ảvá. Such a knowledge would have thrown the presumption on the negative side of the question, and would at least have saved him from quoting this passage as proof of the affirmative.
But the evil of a defective method, beginning with the lexicographer, goes on annoying and hindering the learner through his whole course ; and the result is, that his knowledge at last is only formal knowledge, and not real. A Greek word in his mind is only a translation of an English word ; not a description of some action or thing which he can see about him. As the reading of history is comparatively useless, until,
penetrating through all disguises, we find ourselves in the Romans, Greeks, or Persians of the story ; so the study of a language does but little good, if the student fails to find under its strange costume his own thoughts, feelings, and experience. Then the costume is no longer strange ; he has inade it his own. It is in this way of learning a new language, that he becomes twice a man.
ART. V. The Miscellaneous Works and Remains of the
Rev. Robert Hall, with a Memoir of his Life, by OLINTHUS GREGORY, LL. D; and a Critical Estimate of his Character and Writings, by John Foster, Author of Essays on Decision of Character, &c. London: Henry G. Bohn. 1846. 16mo. pp. 572. 7
There is no phenomenon, in which the usual law of cause and effect seems more utterly set aside, than in the large number of English dissenting divines, who have occupied the same intellectual level with their contemporaries of the national church. There has been, since the birth of features in the intellectual life of the man who has not bad a public education is the difficulty that he finds in determining his own relative position and comparative attaininents. He lacks the standard of self-judgment. He may have acquired on any given subjet all the erudition and the mental discipline which he would have gained on the beaten track ; but he must often feel a painful doubt whether this is the case. The question will constantly rise to his mind, — " Is there dot, in this branch of learning, some process of training or some source of instruction open to others, which has been hidden from me ? Have I at my command all the resources that others have ? " This doubt often renders one diffident in the expression of opinion, where he has a right to speak with confidence and authority, and keeps a truly profound scholar or thinker back in the shadow of those greatly bis inferiors, who have passed mechanically through the prescribed forms of culture.
There is another unfortunate tendency, which may often be traced in those who have failed to enjoy the advantages of a public education. They are very apt to regard as exclusively their own, and thus to announce oracularly and dogmatically, thoughts, reasonings, and theories which they have wrought out suo Marte, but which are the common property of colleges and universities, are embodied in textbooks, and seem trite to those who have passed over the worn threshold of the temple of knowledge. An humble and modest man may thus often appear a pedant. He promulgales essential iruths, which, if new, should be proclaimed with a flourish of trumpets far louder than his timid heralding, but which lie as axioms in the minds of his hearers or readers.
Both these tendencies are strikingly illustrated in the life and writings of John Foster, and present themselves prominently to our notice in his recently published correspondence. He, though not held back by false modesty, and endowed with an almost unprecedented power of regarding himself objectively and dispassionately, seems to have been constantly perplexed in the attempt to ascertain bis true place and relations in the literary republic. Educated in the paltry Baptist Academy at Bristol, familiarly associating from his youth with people of a very narrow range of intellect, he lived in almost entire isolation and solitary self-consciousness,