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gation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted. The East in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the "progressive improvement of interior communications by land " and water, will more and more find, a valuable vent for the “commodities which it brings from abroad or manufactures at “ home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to “its growth and comfort, and whạt is perhaps of still greater

consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment “ of indispensable outlets for its own productions, to the weight, * influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic * side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of " interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West " can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connexion with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious.

" While, then, every part of our country thus feels an imme“diate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined “ cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts, “ greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater

security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of “ their peace by foreign nations, and what is of inestimable " value, they must derive from union an exemption from those “ broils and wars between themselves which so frequently " afflict neighbouring countries, not tied together by the same "government, which their own rivalships alone would be “sufficient to produce, but' which opposite foreign alliances, "attachments, and intrigues, would stimulate and embitter. “ Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those over

grown military establishments, which, under any form of “ government are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be

regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In “this sense, it is that your union ought to be considered as a

“main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought “ to endear to you the preservation of the other.

“ These considerations speak a persuasive language to every “ reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of “ the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a “ doubt whether a common government can embrace so large “ a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere specu“ lation in such a case were criminal. We are authorised to

hope that a proper organization of the whole, with the aux

iliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, “ will afford a happy issue to the experiment. With such

powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of " our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated “ its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust “ the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavour to 6 weaken its bands."

APPENDIX, NO. I.

PERHAPS the following view of the elections of president and vice president, since the retirement of President Washington, may not be uninteresting.

In 1796, the votes were given under the first system, as heretofore explained. The highest in votes became the president, and the next highest, the vice president.

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The equality of the votes for Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Burr produced an arduous contest in the house, the history of which is worth preservation.

The declaration of the votes took place in the senate chamber, on Wednesday, the 11th of February. After the declaration that a choice had not been made by the electors, and that it devolved on the house of representatives, the house con

vened in its own chamber, and furnished seats for the senate, as witnesses. The house had previously adopted rules, that it should continue to ballot, without interruption by other business, and should not adjourn, but have a permanent session until the choice be made; and that the doors of the house shall be closed during the balloting, except against the officers of the house.

The following was directed to be the mode of balloting :

Each state had a ballot box in which the members belonging to it, having previously appointed a teller, put the votes of the state, the teller on the part of the United States having then counted the votes, duplicates of the rest were put by him into two general ballot boxes. Tellers being nominated by each state for the purpose of examining the general ballot boxes, they were divided into two parts, of whom one examined one of the general ballot boxes, and the other examined the other. Upon comparing the result, and finding them to agree, the votes were stated to the speaker, who declared them to the house.

The number of states was at that time 16-nine were necessary to a choice. On the first ballot Mr. Jefferson had eight states, Mr. Burr six, and two were divided.

The first ballot took place about 4 o'clock, P. M. Seven other ballots, with similar results succeeded, when a respite took place, during which the members retired to the lobbies and took refreshment. At three o'clock in the morning of the 12th, two other ballots took place, and at 4 o'clock in the morning, the twenty-first trial. At 12 at noon, of the 12th, the twenty-eighth ballot took place, when the house adjourned to the next day, having probably, in secret session, dispensed with the rule for the permanent session. On Friday, the 13th, the house proceeded to the thirtieth ballot without a choice, and again adjourned to the next day. On Saturday, the 14th, the ballotings had the same result. On Tuesday, the 17th, at

the thirty-sixth ballot, the speaker declared at one o'clock, that Mr. Jefferson was elected, having the votes of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Maryland, four votes for Jefferson and four blanks, and Vermont one vote for Jefferson and one blank vote. Thus ended the contest, and it merits the attention of the enemies of republican institutions, who are fond of anticipating the occurrence of tumult and violence on such occasions. The decorum with which the whole was conducted, and the ready and peaceable acquiescence of the minority, evince both the sound texture of the Constitution, and the true character of the American people.

The election in 1804, was under the present systemThomas Jefferson had, for president

162 votes. Charles C. Pinckney

14 George Clinton, for vice president

162 Rufus King

14

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