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and denakeća, these many; henaka and henakeća, those many; and kanaka and kanakeća, so many as those.

2. • Day' or 'na' is sometimes suffixed with a restrictive signification; as, dena, these, denana, only these ; hena, those, henana, only so many.

§ 28. 1. Also • ķon' partakes of the nature of a demonstrative pronoun when it refers to some person or thing mentioned before; as, wićaśta ķon, that man.

2. When “aor ay’of the preceding word is changed into e,” ķon' becomes •ćiķon' (7. 1.); as, tuwe waŋmdake ćiķoy, that person whom I saw, or the person

I saw.


§ 29. There are properly speaking only two articles, the definite and indefinite.

Definite Article.

§ 30. 1. The definite article is kiŋ, the ; as, wićaśta kiŋ, the man, maka kin, the earth.

2. The definite article, when it occurs after the vowel 'e' which has taken the place of “aor ay,' takes the form ćin' ($ 7. 1.); as, wićaśta siće ćin, the bad

тап. .

3. In conversation, ‘kiŋ,' after nouns, is sometimes contracted into “g,' which is suffixed to the noun; as, oyateg, for oyate kiŋ, the people ; makag, for maka kin, the earth.

§ 31. The demonstrative • ķon ' approaches very nearly to the nature of the article, and may often be rendered accordingly. See § 28.

Indefinite Article.

§ 32. The indefinite article is .wan,' a or an, probably a contraction of the numeral wanži, one ; as, wićaśta way, a man.




Verbal Roots.

§ 33. The Dakota language contains many verbal roots, which are used as verbs only with certain causative prefixes, and which form participles by means of certain additions. The following is a list of the more common verbal roots :

baza, smooth ġa, open out gay, open out ġapa, open oui

ġata, spread
guka, spread out
hiŋta, brush off
hmuŋ, twist

hna, fall off
hnayay, deceive
huhuza, shake
kća, open out, expand

[blocks in formation]

héi, crumble, gap hdata, scratch hdeća, tear, smash hdoka, make a hole Hepa, exhaust hića, arouse hpa, fall down hpu, crumble off htaka, catch, grip ku, peel Huga, jam, smash kawa, open kća, untangle kiŋća, scrape off kiŋza, creak konta, notch ksa, separate kśa, bend kšića, double

ир ktaş, bend mdaza, spread open mdaža, burst out

tića, scrape

skića, press

skita, draw tight
smiŋ, scrape off
sna, ring
sota, clear off, whitish

śka, tie

tipa, contract
titan, pull
tkuga, break off
tpi, crack
tpu, crumble, fall off
wega, fracture
winza, bend down
zamni, open out
ža, stir
zaža, rub out, efface
zin, stiff
zipa, pinch
žuy, root out
zużu, come to pieces.

škića, press

śna, miss

Verbs formed by Prefixes.

§ 34. The syllables · ba,”“bo,” • ka,” “na,' “pa,' 'ya,' and 'yu,' are prefixed to verbal roots, adjectives, and some neuter verbs, making of them active transitive verbs, and usually indicating the mode and instrument of the action.

a. The syllable · ba'prefixed shows that the action is done by cutting or sawing, and that a knife or saw is the instrument.

b. The prefix · bo’ signifies that the action is done by shooting with a gun or arrow, by punching with a stick, or by any instrument thrown endwise. It also expresses the action of rain and hail; and is used in reference to blowing with the mouth, as, bosni, to blow out.

c. The prefix • ka’ denotes that the action is done by striking, as with an axe or club, or by shaving. It is also used to denote the effects of wind and of running water.

d. The prefix • na’ generally signifies that the action is done with the foot or by pressure. It is also used to express the involuntary action of things, as the bursting of a gun, the warping of a board and cracking of timber, and the effects of freezing, boiling, etc.

e. The prefix ‘pa’ shows that the action is done by pushing or rubbing with the hand.

f. The prefix «ya’ signifies that the action is performed with the mouth. g. The prefix 'yu'may be regarded as simply causative or effective. It has an

indefinite signification, and is commonly used without any reference to the manner in which the action is performed.

Usually the signification of the verbal roots is the same with all the prefixes, as they only have respect to the manner and instrument of the action : as, baksa, to cut in two with a knife, as a stick; boksa, to shoot off ; kaksa, to cut off with an are ; naksa, to break off with the foot; paksa, to break of with the hand ; yaksa, to bite off; yuksa, to break off. But the verbal root śka, appears to undergo a change of meaning ; as, kaśka, to tie, yuśka, to untie.

$ 35. These prefixes are also used with neuter verbs, giving to them an active signification ; as, nažin, to stand, yunazin, to raise up, cause to stand ; ćeya, to cry, naćeya, to make cry by kicking.

§ 36. We also have verbs formed from adjectives by the use of such of these prefixes as the meaning of the adjectives will admit of; as, waste, good, yuwaste, to make good ; teća, new, yuteća, to make new ; šića, bad, yaśića, to speak evil of.

Compound Verbs.

37. There are several classes of verbs which are compounded of two verbs. 1. “Kiya' and 'ya' or 'yan,' when used with other verbs, impart to them a causative signification and are usually joined with them in the same word; as, nažiŋ, he stands, naziŋkiya, he causes to stand. The first verb is sometimes contracted (see § 11); as, waŋyaka, he sees, waŋyagkiya, he causes to see.

2. In the above instances the first verb has the force of an infinitive or present participle. But sometimes the first as well as the second has the force of an independent finite verb; as, hdiwanka, he comes home and sleeps ; hinaziŋ, he comes and stands. These may be termed double verbs.

$ 38. To verbs in Dakota belong conjugation, form, person, number, mood, and tense.


39. Dakota verbs are comprehended in three conjugations, distinguished by the form of the pronouns in the first and second persons singular which denote the agent.

a. In the first conjugation the nominative singular pronouns are .wa' or 'we,' and “ya' or 'ye.”

b. The second conjugation embraces verbs in 'yu,''ya,' and 'yo,' which form the first and second persons singular by changing the “y’into “md' and d.'

c. Neuter and adjective verbs form the third conjugation, known by taking what are more properly the objective pronouns, “ma’ and “ni.?


§ 40. Dakota verbs exhibit certain varieties of form, which indicate corresponding variations of meaning.

1. Most Dakota verbs may assume a frequentative form, that is, a form which conveys the idea of frequency of action. It consists in doubling a syllable, generally the last; as, baksa, to cut off with a knife, baksaksa, to cut off in several places. This form is conjugated in all respects just as the verb is before reduplication.

2. The so-called absolute form of active verbs is made by prefixing “wa,' and is conjugated in the same manner as the primitive verb, except that it cannot take an objective noun or pronoun. The “wa’ appears to be equivalent to the English something : as, manon, to steal, wamanoy, to steal something ; taspaŋtanka mawanon, (apple I-stole) I stole an apple, wamawanon, I stole something, i. e. I committed a theft.

3. When the agent acts on himself, the verb is put in the reflexive form. The reflexive is formed in two ways: first, by incorporating the reflexive pronouns, içi, niçi, miči, and unkiệi; as, waśteiệidaka, he loves himself. Secondly, verbs in ‘yu,' ya, and “yo,' that make the possessive by changing 'y'into hd, prefix to this form \i; as, yuzaža, to wash any thing ; hdużaža, to wash one's own, as one's clothes ; ihdużała, to wash oneself.

4. When the agent acts on his own, i. e. something belonging to himself, the verb assumes the possessive form. This is made in two ways: first, by prefixing or inserting the possessive pronoun “ki' (and in some cases ók’alone); as, wastedaka, to love any thing ; ćinéa wastekidaka, he loves his child. Secondly, in verbs in ‘yu,’ ‘ya,' and 'yo,' the possessive form is made by changing 'y' into “hd; as, yuha, to have or possess any thing ; hduha, to have one's own ; śuktanka wahduha, I have my own horse.

5. Another form of verbs is made by prefixing or inserting prepositions meaning to and for. This may be called the dative form.

a. When the action is done to another, the preposition “ki’ is prefixed or inserted; as, kaga, to make any thing; kiếaga, to make to one ; wowapi kićağa, (writing to-him-he-made) he wrote him a letter. This form is also used when the action is done on something that belongs to another; as, šunka kikte, (dog to-him-hekilled) he killed his dog.

b. When the thing is done for another, “kíći’ is used ; as, wowapi kićićaga, (writing for-him-he-made) he wrote a letter for him. In the plural, this sometimes has a reciprocal force; as, wowapi kićićaġapi, they wrote letters to each other.

6. In some verbs “ki' prefixed conveys the idea that the action takes effect on the middle of the object; as, baksa, to cut in two with a knife, as a stick; kibaksa, to cut in two in the middle.


§ 41. Dakota verbs have three persons, the first, second, and third. The third person is represented by the verb in its simple form, and the second and first persons by the addition of the personal pronouns.


§ 42. Dakota verbs have three numbers, the singular, dual, and plural.

1. The dual number is only of the first person. It includes the person speaking and the one spoken to, and is in form the same as the first person plural, but without the termination «pi ;' as, wasteundaka, we two love him; mauầni, we two walk.

2. The plural is formed by suffixing “pi ;' as, wasteundakapi, we love him ; manipi, they walk.

3. There are some verbs of motion which form what may be called a collective plural, denoting that the action is performed by two or more acting together or in a body. This is made by prefixing a' or 'e ;' as, u, to come, au, they come ; ya, to go, aya, they go; naziŋ, to stand, enažiŋ, they stand. These have also the ordinary plural; as, upi, yapi, nažiŋpi.


§ 43. There are three moods belonging to Dakota verbs: the indicative, imperative, and infinitive.

1. The indicative is the common form of the verb; as, ćeya, he cries ; ćeyapi,

they cry.

2. a. The imperative singular is formed from the third person singular indicative and the syllablesówo' and 'ye;' as, ćeya wo, leya ye, cry thou. Instead of “ye,' the Mdewakantonway has • we,' and the Titoŋway • le.'

b. The imperative plural is formed by the syllables 'po,’ ‘pe,' «m, and “miye ;' as, ćeya po, ćeya pe, ćeyam, and ćeya miye. It has been suggested that “po' is formed by an amalgamation of .pi,' the common plural ending, and ówo’ the sign of the imperative singular. In like manner .pi’ and ‘ye’ may be combined to make pe. The combination of miye’ is not so apparent.

The forms "wo' and po' are used only by men ; and “we,' 'ye,' “pe,' and miye’ by woinen, though not exclusively. From observing this general rule, we formerly supposed that sex was indicated by them ; but lately we have been led to regard 'wo' and 'po' as used in commanding, and 'we,''ye, “pe,' and · miye,' in entreating. Although it would be out of character for women to use the former, men may and often do use the latter.

When “po, pe,' or ' miye’ is used it takes the place of the plural ending 'pi; as, ćeya po, ćeya miye, cry ye. But with the negative adverb · śni,' the 'pi’ is retained ; as, ćeyapi śni po, do not cry,

Sometimes in giving a command the “wo' and 'ye,' signs of the imperative, are not expressed. The plural endings are less frequently omitted.

3. The infinitive is commonly the same as the ground form of the verb, or third person singular indicative. When two verbs come together, the first one is usually to be regarded as the infinitive mood or present participle ; and is contracted if capable of contraction (11); as, wanyaka, to see any thing, wanyag mde kta, (to-see it I-go will) I will go to see it ; nakon wauŋ, (hearing l-am) I am hearing, or I hear.

What in other languages are called conditional and subjunctive moods may be formed by using the indicative with the conjunctions unkans, kinhan, or linhan, tuka, esta or sta, and kes, which come after the verb; as, ćeya unkans, if he had cried ; ćeye ćinhan, if he cry; ćeye kta tuka, he would cry, but he does not; wahi unkanś wakaśke kta tuka, if I had come, I would have bound him.


§ 44. Dakota verbs have two tenses, the aorist or indefinite, and the future. 1. The aorist includes the present and imperfect past. It has commonly no

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