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particular sign. Whether the action is past or now being done must be determined by circumstances, or by the adverbs used.

2. The sign of the future tense is “kta' placed after the verb. It is often changed into “ kte;' for the reason of which, see $ 6. 1. b.

What answers to a perfect past is sometimes formed by using • ķon' or ' éiķon,' and sometimes by the article “kin' or ó éin ;' as, taku nawalion ķon, what I heard.


§ 45. 1. The addition of han’to the third person singular of some verbs makes an active participle ; as, ia, to speak, iahay, speaking ; nažin, to stand, nažiyhan, standing ; mani, to walk, manihay, walking. The verbs that admit of this formation do not appear to be numerous.

2. The third person singular of the verb when preceding another verb, has often the force of an active participle; as, nałowauŋ, I am hearing. When capable of contraction it is in this case contracted; as, wanyaka, to see, wanyag nawazin, I stand seeing

§ 46. 1. The verb in the plural impersonal form, has in many instances the force of a passive participle ; as, makaśkapi wauŋ, (me-they-bound I-am) I am bound.

2. Passive participles are also formed from the verbal roots ($ 33) by adding " han’ and “wahan ; as, ksa, separate, ksahan and ksawahay, broken in two, as a stick. In some cases only one of these forms is in use ; but generally both occur, without however, so far as we have perceived, any difference in the meaning.

A few of the verbal roots are used as adjectives; as, mdu, fine ; but they also take the participial endings, as, mduwahan, crumbled fine.


§ 47. Those which are embraced in the first conjugation are mostly active verbs, and take the subjective pronouns ‘ya’ or “ye,' and wa' or 'we,' in the second and first persons singular.


§ 48. The first variety of the first conjugation is distinguished by prefixing or inserting “yaand wa,' pronouns of the second and first persons singular.

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The verb yuta, to eat any thing, may be regarded as coming under the first variety of this conjugation. The 'yu' is dropped when the pronouns are assumed ; as, yúta, he eats, yata, thou eatest, wáta, I eat.


§ 49. The second variety of the first conjugation is distinguished by the use of ‘ye’ and we,' instead of “yaki' and “waki' ($ 18. 4.), in the second and first persons singular.

A. Pronouns Prefixed.

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IMPERATIVE MOOD. Sing. 2. kiksúya wo, ye, or we, remember thou.

Plur. kiksúya po, pe, or miye, remember ye.

Future Tense.—It is deemed unnecessary to give any further examples of the future tense, as those which have gone before fully illustrate the manner of its formation.

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Plur. 2. ećákićon wo, ye, or we, do thou it to one.

ećákićon po, pe, or miye, do ye it to one.


§ 50. Verbs in ‘yu," "ya,' and 'yo,' which change “y' into 'd' for the second person, and into 'md' for the first person singular, belong to this conjugation. They are generally active in their signification.

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First person plural.-Verbs in 'yu' generally form the first person plural and dual by dropping the 'yu,' as in the example ; but occasionally a speaker retains it and prefixes the pronoun, as, unyúśtanpi for únstanpi.

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§ 51. The second variety of the second conjugation embraces such verbs as belong to the same class but are irregular or defective.

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b. Yukan, to be or there is.


Sing. 3. yukáŋ, there is some. 2. 1.

Plur. yukáŋpi, they are. dukáypi, you are. únkaypi, we are.

unkán, we two are.

The verb yukan ’ in the singular is applied to things and not to persons except as considered collectively.

c. Plur. Yakonpi, they are.


Sing. 3. 2. dakánon, thou art. 1.

Plur. yakonpi, they are. dakánoņpi, you are. unyákonpi, we are.

uŋyákon, we two are.

These two last verbs, it will be observed, are defective. Kiyukan, formed from yukay, is used in the sense of to make room for one, and is of the first conjugation.


52. 1. The objective pronoun occupies the same place in the verb as the. subjective; as, kaśka, he binds, makaśka, he binds me ; manon, he steals, aninon, he steals thee.

2. When the same verb contains both a subjective and an objective pronoun, the objective is placed first; as, mayakaśka, thou bindest me, mawićayanoŋ, thou stealest them. An exception is formed by the pronoun of the first person plural, which is always placed before the pronoun of the second person, whether subjective or objective; as, uynićaśkapi, we bind you.

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$ 53. Active verbs are frequently used impersonally in the plural number, and take the objective pronouns to indicate the person or persons acted upon, in which

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