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$ 60. Dakota nouns, like those of other languages, may be divided into two classes, primitive and derivative.

$ 61. Primitive nouns are those whose origin cannot be deduced from any other word; as, maka, earth, peta, fire, pa, head, ista, eye, ate, father, ina, mother.

§ 62. Derivative nouns are those which are formed in various ways from other words, chiefly from verbs, adjectives, and other nouns. The principal classes of derivatives are as follows:

1. Nouns of the instrument are formed from active verbs by prefixing 'i;' as, yumdu, to plough, iyumdu, a plough; kasdeća, to split

, ićasdeće, a wedge ; kahinta, to rake or sweep, ilahiŋte, a rake or broom. These again are frequently compounded with other nouns. See § 68.

2. Nouns of the person or agent are formed from active verbs by prefixing 'wa;' as, ihangya, to destroy, waihangye, a destroyer ; yawaste, to bless, wayawaśte, one who blesses, a blesser.

3. Many abstract nouns are formed from verbs and adjectives by prefixing wo;' as, ihangya, to destroy, woihangye, destruction ; wayazan, to be sick, wowayazaŋ, sickness ; waoŋsida, merciful, wowaonsida, mercy ; waste, good, wowaste, goodness.

4. Some nouns are formed from verbs and adjectives by prefixing .0;' as, wanka, to lie down, owanka, a floor ; apa, to strike, oape, a stroke ; owa, to mark or write, oowa, a mark or letter of the alphabet ; sni, cold, as an adjective, osni, cold, a noun; mašte, hot, omaste, heat.

5. a. “Wića, prefixed to neuter and intransitive verbs and adjectives, sometimes forms of them abstract nouns; as, yazay, to be sick, wilayazaŋ and wawićayazan, sickness ; waste, good, wićawaste, goodness.

b. It sometimes forms nouns of the agent; as, yaśića, to speak evil of, curse, wićayaśiće, a curser.

c. Some nouns, by prefixing.wića' or its contraction • wić,' have their signification limited to the human species; as, wićaćante, the human heart ; wićanape, the human hand; wićoie, human words ; wićoħaŋ, human actions. We also have wićaatkuku, a father or one's father ; wićahunku, one's mother ; wićaćiyća, one's children.

In like manner ta’ (not the possessive pronoun, but the generic name of ruminating animals, and particularly applied to the moose) is prefixed to the names of various members of the body, and limits the signification to such animals; as, tacante, a buffalo or deer's heart ; tapa, a deer's head; taćeži, a buffalo's tongue ; taha, a deer's skin ; tacesdi, the bois de vache' of the prairie.

When to such nouns is prefixed' wa' (from walianksića, a bear), their signification is limited to the bear species ; as, wapa, a bear's head ; waha, a bear's skin ; wasun, a bear's den.

In like manner, “ho,' from hogan, a fish, prefixed to a few nouns, limits their signification to that genus; as, hoape, fish-fins; hoaśke, the bunch on the head of a fish.

6. Abstract nouns are formed from adjectives by prefixing.wićo,' which may be regarded as compounded of 'wića' and 'wo;' as waste, good, wicowaśte, goodness, waoŋsida, merciful ; wicowaonsida, mercy.

7. a. Nouns are formed from verbs in the intransitive or absolute state by suffixing “pi ;' as, wowa, to paint or write, wowapi, (they wrote something) something written, a writing or book ; wayawa, to count, wayawapi, figures or arithmetic.

b. Any verb may be used with the plural ending as a verbal noun or gerund, sometimes without, but more commonly with, the definite article ; as, itazo, to take credit, ićazopi, credit ; wayawaśte, to bless, wayawaśtepi, blessing; waihangya, to destroy, waihangyapi, destroying ; ećoŋ, to do, econpi kiŋ, the doing of a thing.

8. When «s'a' is used after verbs, it denotes frequency of action, and gives them the force of nouns of the person ; as, kaġe s'a, a maker; econpi s'a, doers ; yakoypi s'a, dwellers.


§ 63. ‘Day' or 'na' is suffixed to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs, and has sometimes a diminutive and sometimes a restrictive signification.

1. Suffixed to nouns, “ dan’ is generally diminutive; as, mde, lake, mdeday, little lake ; wakpa, river, wakpadaŋ, little river or rivulet ; apa, some, apadan, a small part.

2. Some nouns now appear only with the diminutive ending, although they may formerly have been used without it; as, hoksidan, boy ; suņħpadaŋ, little dog, puppy; śuņģiday, fox.

3. Nouns ending with this diminutive take the plural termination before the daŋ; as, hoksidaŋ, boy, hoksipiday, boys.

4. Some nouns ending in ‘na,' when they take the plural form, change .na' into day;' as, wićiŋyaŋna, girl, wićiŋyanpidaŋ, girls ; wanistiŋna, a few, plur. wanistiņpidan. In some cases dan’ is used only in the plural form; as, tonana, a few, plur. tonanaypidan.

The Ihanktonways and Sisitoŋways commonly use 'na,' and the Titonways ‘la,' instead of dan,' for che diminutive ending; as, hoksina and hoksila, for hoksidan.

§ 64. 1. ‘Dan’ is often joined to adjectives and verbs, as the last principal word in the clause, although it properly belongs to the noun ; as, śuktanka wan waste-dan (horse a good-little), a good little horse, not a horse a little good ; ničinkši ćeye-dan (thy-son cries-little), thy little son cries.

2. When used with a transitive verb, 'dan'may belong either to the subject or the object of the verb; as, nisunka šunka kiktedan (thy-brother dog his-killed-little), thy little brother killed his dog, or thy brother killed his little dog.


§ 65. 1. Gender is sometimes distinguished by different names for the masculine and feminine; as, wićaśta, man, winohiŋća, woman; tatanka, buffalo bull, pte, buffalo cow ; heħaka, the male elk, upay, the female elk.

2. But more commonly the distinction is made by means of adjectives. “Wića' and • wiŋyan’ denote the male and female of the human species ; as, hoksiyoķopa

wića, a male child, hoksiyoķopa wiyyay, a female child. “Mdoka’ and wiye' distinguish the sex of animals ; as, tamdoka, a buck ; tawiyeday, a doe, the day' being diminutive. These words, however, are often written separately; as, paġonta mdoka, a drake ; zitkadaŋ wiye, a hen bird. In some instances contraction takes place; as, śung mdoka, a horse ; śung wiye, a mare, from sunka.

3. Proper names of females of the human species frequently have “win,' an abbreviation of .wiŋyan,' female, for their termination ; as, Totidutawin (woman of her red house); Wakankażužuwin (female spirit that pays debts). Sometimes the diminutive • wiŋna’ is used for wiŋ;' as, Makpiwizna (cloud woman).


§ 66. To nouns belong two numbers, the singular and plural.

1. The plural of animate objects is denoted by the termination “pi, which is attached either to the noun itself; as, šunka, a dog, šunkapi, dogs ; or, as is more commonly the case, to the adjective or verb which follows it in the same phrase ; as, šunka ksapapi, wise dogs ; śunka ećoņpi, dogs did it.

2. a. Names of inanimate objects seldom take the plural termination, even when used with a plural meaning ; as, čaŋ, a tree or trees ; máġa, a field or fields.

6. On the other hand, some nouns formed from verbs by adding the plural termination “pi’ (3 62. 7. a.) are used with a singular as well as a plural meaning; as, tipi, a house or houses ; wowapi, a book or books.


§ 67. Dakota nouns may be said to have two principal cases, the nominative and objective.

The nominative and objective cases are usually known by the place which they occupy in the sentence. When two nouns are used, the one the subject and the other the object of the action, the subject is placed first, the object next, and the verb last ; as, wićaśta wan wowapi waŋ kaga, (man a book a made) a man made a book ; Dawid Sopiya wastedaka, (David Sophia loves) David loves Sophia ; Dakota Beśdeke wićaktepi, (Dakota Fox-Indian them-they-killed) the Dakotas killed the Fox Indians.

When, from some consideration, it is manifest which must be the nominative, the arrangement may be different; as, wićasta Wakantanka kaġa, (man God made) God made man.

As this distinction of case is rather syntactical than etymological, see further in the Syntax.


§ 68. The relation of two nouns to each other, as possessor and possessed, is sometimes indicated by placing them in juxtaposition, the name of the possessor coming first; as, wahukeza ihupa, spear-handle ; tipi tiyopa, house-door ; wićasta oie, man's word.

Sometimes the first noun suffers contraction; as, malicinća, a gosling, for magá éinéa (goose-child), maliiyumdu, a plough, for máġa iyumdu (field-plough); mabićahinte, a rake, for máġa ićahinte ( fieldrak).

§ 69. But the relation is pointed out more definitely by adding to the last term a possessive pronoun, either separate or incorporated.

1. Sometimes the pronouns tawa' and “tawapi' are used after the second noun; as, tatanka woyute tawa, (buffalo food his) buffalo's food ; woyute śuktayka tawapi, (food horse theirs) horses' food; wićaśtayatapi tipi tawa, (chief house his) the chief's house.

2. a. But generally the possessive pronouns are prefixed to the name of the thing possessed; as, tatanka tawote, (buffalo his-food) buffalo's food; Dawid taanpetu, (David his-day) the days of David.

Sometimes 'ti' is prefixed instead of 'ta;' as, wanhinkpe, an arrow; Dawid tiwanhinkpe, David's


Nouns commencing with 'i' or 'o'prefixót’ only; as, ipahin, a pillow; Hake tipahin, Hake's pillow ; owinza, a bed ; Hake towinze, Hake's bed.

Abstract nouns which commence with wo' drop the 'w' and prefix ót; as, wowaśte, goodness ; Wakantanka towaśte, God's goodness. (See § 23. 2. 6.)

b. Nouns expressing relationship form their genitive by means of the suffix pronouns • ku, •ću,'' tku;' as, suŋka, younger brother, Dawid sunkaku, David's younger brother ; ćiyye, the elder brother of a man, Tomas ćiņću, Thomas's elder brother ; cinkši, a daughter, wiłaśta činkśitku, man's daughter.

Proper and Family Names.

$ 70. The proper names of the Dakotas arė words, simple and compounded, which are in common use in the language. They are usually given to children by the father, grandfather, or some other influential relative. When young men have distinguished themselves in battle, they frequently take to themselves new names, as the names of distinguished ancestors or warriors now dead. The son of a chief, when he comes to the chieftainship, generally takes the name of his father or grandfather; so that the same names, as in other more powerful dynasties, are handed down along the royal lines.

1. a. Dakota proper names sometimes consist of a single noun; as, Mahpiya, Cloud ; Hoksidan, Boy; Wamdenića, Orphan; Wowaćinyan, Faith.

b. Sometimes they consist of a single adjective; as, Sakpe, (Six) Little-six, the chief at Prairieville.

2. a. But more frequently they are composed of a noun and adjective; as, Iśtahba, (eyes-sleepy) Sleepy-eyes ; Tatanka-hanska, (buffalo-long) Long buffalo ; Matohota, Grizzly-bear ; Wamdi-duta, Scarlet-eagle ; Mato-tamahela, Lean-bear ; Mazakota, Grey-iron ; Maza-ś’a, Sounding-metal ; Wapaha-śa, Red-flag-staff', called now Wabeshaw.

6. Sometimes they are formed of two nouns; as, Malipiya-wićaśta, Cloud-man ; Pežihuta-wićaśta, Medicine-man ; Ite-wakiŋyan, Thunder-face.

3. Sometimes a possessive pronoun is prefixed; as, Ta-makoće, His country; Ta-peta-tayka, His-great-fire ; Ta-oyate-duta, His-red-people. 4. a. Sometimes they consist of verbs in the intransitive form, which may

be rendered by nouns ; as, Wakute, Shooter ; Wanapeya, One-who-causes-flight.


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