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b. Sometimes they are compounded of a noun and verb; as, Akilita-nazin, Standing-soldier or Sentinel ; Tatanka-nažin, Standing-buffalo ; Małpiya-mani, Walking-cloud ; Waymdi-okiya, One-who-talks-with-the-eagle ; Malipiya-hdinape, Cloud-that-appears-again.
c. Sometimes they are formed of two verbs; as, Iŋyang-mani, One-who-walksrunning. In some instances a preposition is prefixed; as, Anawang-mani, Onewho-walks-as-he-gallops-on.
§ 71. The names of the women are formed in the same way, but generally have win' or 'wizna, female, added; as, Aŋpetu-sapa-wiŋ, Black-day-woman ; Malipiwiŋna, Cloud-woman.
§ 72. The Dakotas have no family or surnames. But the children of a family have particular names which belong to them, in the order of their birth, up to the fifth child. These names are, for boys, Ćaské, Hepáŋ, Hepí, Ćatán, and Haké. For girls, they are, Winóna, Hápan, Hápistiyna, Wánske, and Wiháke. Thus the first child, if a boy, is called Caské, if a girl, Winóna; the second, if a boy, is called Hepáŋ, and if a girl, Hápaŋ, etc. If there are more than five children in the family, the others have no names of this kind.
§ 73. The names of certain family relations, both male and female, are presented in the following table :
elder brother elder sister younger brother younger sister male cousin female cousin brother-in-law sister-in-law
ciŋyé tayké sun ká tankśí taháyśi hankási talan hayká
The other relations, as, father, mother, uncle, aunt, grandfather, grandmother, etc., are designated, both by men and women, by the same names.
§ 74. 1. Most adjectives in Dakota may be considered as primitive ; as, ska, white, tanka, large, waste, good.
2. A few are formed from verbs by prefixing ‘wa;' as, oŋśida, to have mercy on one, waoyśida, merciful; taŋtekiya, to love, waćaŋtkiya, benevolent.
$ 75. Final'a' or 'an' of many adjectives is changed into 'e' when followed by certain particles, as, hinća, do, kiŋ or éiŋ, etc.: šića, bad, biće hiņća,
very wićasta siće ćin, the bad man.
$ 76. Adjectives have three numbers, the singular, dual, and plural.
§ 77. The dual is formed from the singular by prefixing or inserting ‘un,' the pronoun of the first person plural; as, ksapa, wise; wićaśta uŋksapa, we two wise men ; waoŋśida, merciful ; waoŋśiunda, we two merciful ones.
$ 78. 1. The plural is formed by the addition of “pi’ to the singular ; as, waste, good ; wićasta wastepi, good men.
2. Another form of the plural which frequently occurs, especially in connexion with animals and inanimate objects, is made by a reduplication of one of the syllables.
a. Sometimes the first syllable reduplicates; as, ksapa, wise, plur. ksaksapa ; tanka, great, plur. tanktanka.
b. In some cases the last syllable reduplicates; as, waste, good, plur. wasteśte.
c. And sometimes a middle syllable is reduplicated; as, tankinyan), great or large, plur. tankinkiŋyan.
$ 79. Adjectives are not inflected to denote degrees of comparison, but are increased or diminished in signification by means of adverbs.
1. a. What may be called the comparative degree is formed by saŋpa, more ; as, waste, good, sanpa waste, more good or better. When the name of the person or thing, with which the comparison is made, immediately precedes, the preposition 'i'is employed to indicate the relation, and is prefixed to saypa; as, wićaśta kiŋ de isaŋpa waste, this man is better than that. Sometimes ásam iyeya,' which may be translated more advanced, is used; as, sam iyeya waśte, more advanced good or better.
It is difficult to translate ‘iyeya' in this connexion, but it seems to convey the idea of passing on from one degree to another.
b. Often, too, comparison is made by saying that one is good and another is bad; as, de sića, he waste, this is bad, that is good, i. e. that is better than this.
c. To diminish the signification of adjectives, “ kitanna’ is often used; as, tanka, large, kitaŋna tanka, somewhat large, that is, not very large.
2. What may be called the superlative degree is formed by the use of ‘nina, hiņća,' and `iyotan ;' as, nina waste, or waste hiņća, very good ; iyotan waste, best.
1. The numbers from eleven to eighteen inclusive, are formed in two ways:
a. By ake, again ; as, ake waŋzidan, eleven ; ake nonpa, twelve ; ake yamni, thirteen, etc. Written in full, these would be wikćemna ake waŋzidaŋ, ten again one ; wikćemna ake nonpa, ten again two, etc.
In counting, the Dakotas use their fingers, bending them down as they pass on, until they reach ten. They then turn down a little finger, to remind them that one ten is laid away, and commence again. When the second ten is counted, another finger goes down, and so on.
b. By saypa, more ; as, wikćemna saŋpa wanžiday, ten more one, (10 + 1) or eleven ; wikćemna saŋpa topa, (10+4) fourteen ; wikćemna sanpa śahdogan, (10+8) eighteen.
2. Nineteen is formed by uyma, the other; as, unma napéiŋwanka, the other nine.
3. a. Wikćemna nonpa is (10 x 2) twenty, and so with thirty, forty, etc. The numbers between these are formed in the same way as between eleven and eighteen ; as, wikćemna nonpa sanpa wayžiday, or, wikćemna noņpa ake wanžidan, (10x2+1) twenty-one ; wikćemna noņpa sanpa napćinwanka, (10 x 2 +9) twenty-nine ; wikéemna yamni sanpa topa, (10 x 3 + 4) thirty-four ; wikćemna zaptaŋ sanpa napćinwayka, (10 x 5 + 9) fifty-nine. Over one hundred, numbers are still formed in the same way; as, opawinġe sanpa wikćemna sakpe sanpa śakowin, (100+ [10x6] +7) one hundred and sixty-seven ; kektopawiŋge noypa sanpa opawinge zaptaŋ sanpa wikćemna yamni sanpa sakpe, ([1000 x 2] + [100 x 5] + [10 x 3] + 6) two thousand five hundred and thirty-six.
b. The numbers between twenty and thirty, thirty and forty, etc., are occasionally expressed by placing an ordinal before the cardinal, which denotes that it is so many in such a ten ; as, iyamni topa, four of the third (ten) i. e. twenty-four; itopa yamni, three of the fourth (ten) i. e. thirty-three.
§ 81. Numeral adjectives by reduplicating a syllable express the idea of two and two or by twos, three and three or by threes, etc.; as, nomnoņpa, by twos ; yamnimni, by threes ; toptopa, by fours, etc.
(1.) Wanžikzi, the reduplicate of wanži, properly means by ones, but is used to signify a few.
(2.) Nonpa and topa are often contracted into nom and tom; and are generally reduplicated in this form; as, nomnom, by twos; tomtom, by fours.
(3.) Yamni, zaptan, sakowin, and wikéemna, reduplicate the last syllable; as, yamnimni, zaptanptan, sakowinwiŋ, and wikéemnamna. The same is true of opawinġe and kektopawinge; as, opawingeģe, by hundreds.
(4.) Napćinwanka and śahdoğan reduplicate a middle syllable, as, napéinwangwanka, by nines, sahdohdoğan, by eights.
§ 82. Wayća, nonpa, yamni, etc., are also used for once, twice, thrice, etc. Nonpa nonpa hećen topa, twice two so four, that is, twice two are four. And “akihde’ is sometimes used for this purpose ; as, noņpa akihde noŋpa, two times two.
§ 83 1. ‘Dan’ or “na,' suffixed to numeral adjectives, is restrictive ; as, yamni, three, yamnina, only three ; zaptan, five, zaptaŋna, only five.
2. With monosyllabic words 'na' is doubled, as, nom, two, nomnana, only two ; tom, four, tomnana, only four ; hunh, a part, huyhnana, only a part.
§ 84. 1. The ordinal numbers, after tokaheya, first, are formed from cardinals by prefixing “i, ići, and “wići ;' as, inonpa, ićinoypa, and wilinonpa, second ; iyamni, ićiyamni, and wićiyamni, third; itopa, ićitopa, and wićitopa, fourth ; iwikćemna, tenth, etc.
2. In like manner we have iake waŋzi, eleventh ; iake nonpa, twelfth ; iake yamni, thirteenth, etc.; iwikćemna nonpa, twentieth ; iopawiņģe, one hundredth, etc.
§ 85. When several numbers are used together, the last only has the ordinal form; as, wikćemna nonpa sanpa iyamni, twenty-third; opawiŋge sanpa iake nonpa, , hundred and twelfth.
§ 86. There are some adverbs, in very common use, whose derivation from other parts of speech is not now apparent, and which may therefore be considered as primitives ; as, eća, when ; kuya and kun, under, below ; kitaŋna, a little, not much ; nina and hiŋća, very ; ohiyni, always ; saypa, more ; tankan, without, out of doors ; waŋna, now, etc.
$ 87. But adverbs in Dakota are, for the most part, derived from demonstrative pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs ; and in some instances from other parts of speech.
1. Adverbs are formed from demonstrative pronouns, by adding “han' and 'haŋ,' “ken’ and · ćen,' • ketu” and “ ćetu,”en,” • ki’ and “kiya,'• ci' and •ćiya.'
a. By adding “han’ and ‘han;' as, de, this, dehan, here, now ; he, that, hehan, there, then ; ka, that, kahan and kahaŋ, then, there, so far.
b. By adding “ken' and ćen;' as, kaken, in this manner ; eća, when, ećaken, whenever, always ; dećen, thus ; hećen, in that way.
c. By adding - ketu’andó ćetu;' as, kaketu, in that manner ; debetu, in this way ; heletu, so, thus.
d. By adding “en, in, in a contracted form; as, de, this, den, here ; he, that, hen, there ; ka, that, kan, yonder ; tukte, which ? tukten, where?
e. By adding “ki’ and .6i,'kiya’ and tiya ;' as, ka, that, kaki and kakiya, there ; de, this, deći and dećiya, here.
2. Adverbs are formed from adjectives, by adding ‘ya;' as, waste, good, wasteya, well ; siła, bad, sićaya, badly ; tanka, great, tankaya, greatly, extensively.
3. a. Adverbs are formed from verbs, by adding ‘yan ;' as, iyuśkiŋ, to rejoice, iyuśkinyan, rejoicingly, gladly ; tanyay, well, may be from the obsolete verb • tan (as they still use atan, to regard, take care of); itonśni, to tell a lie, itoŋśniyan, falsely.
6. Some are formed by adding “ya' alone; as, aokaga, to tell a falsehood about one, aokaliya, falsely.
c. In a few instances adverbs are formed from verbs by adding “na ;' as, inasini, to be in haste, inalinina, hastily, temporarily.
4. Adverbs are formed from other adverbs.
a. By adding “tu;' as, dehan, now, dehantu, at this time ; hehan, then, hehantu, at that time ; tohan, when ? tohantu, at what time ?
b. Other forms are made by adding ‘ya' to the preceding; as, dehantuya, thus, here ; hehantuya, there ; debetuya, so ; toketuya, in whatever way.
c. Others still are made by the further addition of “ken ;' as, dehantuyaken, toketuyaken. The meaning appears to be substantially the same after the addition of ken’ as before.
d. Adverbs are formed from other adverbs by adding ‘yan ;' as, dehan, now, here, dehaŋyay, to this time or place, so far; tohan, when ? tolanya), as long as, how long ? ohiyni, always, ohiyniyan, for ever.
e. Adverbs are formed from other adverbs by adding “tkiya ;' as, kun, below, kuytkiya, downwards ; wankan, above, wankaŋtkiya, upwards.
5. Some adverbs are formed from nouns.
a. By prefixing “a’ and taking the adverbial termination ‘ya ;' as, paha, a hill, apahaya, hill-like, convexly ; wanita, nonc, awanin and awaninya, in a destroying way.
b. By suffixing ata’ or “yata,' etc.; as, lie, a hill or ridge, leyata, back at the hill.
6. Adverbs are derived from prepositions.
a. By adding 'tu' or “tuya ;' as, mahen, in or within, mahentu or mahetu and mahetuya, inwardly.
b. By adding • wapa; as, ako, beyond, akowapa, onward; mahen, in, mahenwapa, inwardly.