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88. Prepositions may be divided into separate and incorporated.

Separate Prepositions.

§ 89. The separate prepositions in Dakota follow the nouns which they govern, and hence might properly be called postpositions ; as, tan akan nawaziŋ, (wood upon I-stand) I stand upon wood; he maza on kagapi, (that iron of is-made) that is made of iron. The following are the principal separate prepositions; viz.:

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Incorporated Prepositions. § 90. These are suffixed to nouns, prefixed to or inserted into verbs, and prefixed to adverbs, etc.

§ 91. The prepositions suffixed to nouns are ' ta,' and 'ata ’or ‘yata,' at or on ; as, tízta, prairie, tiŋtáta, at or on the prairie ; máġa, a field, magáta, at the field ; ćay, wood or woods, banyata, at the woods. The preposition en, in, contracted, is suffixed to a few nouns; as, ti, a house, tin, in the house. These formations may in some cases be regarded as adverbs; as, he, a hill or ridge, heyata, at the hill or

back from.

$ 92. The prepositions óa,” •e,"‘i,”\0,' instead of being suffixed to the noun, are prefixed to the verb.

1. a. The preposition “a, on or upon, is probably a contraction of akan,' and is prefixed to a very large number of verbs; as, mani, to walk, amani, to walk on, caŋkaga amawani, I walk on a log.

b. The preposition “e,' to or at, is probably from ekta,' and is prefixed to some verbs; as, yulipa, to lay down any thing one is carrying, eyulipa, to lay down at a place.

c. The preposition 'i' prefixed to verbs means with, for, on account of ; as, ćekiya, to pray, ićekiya, to pray for a thing.

d. The preposition “o, in, is a contraction of ohna,' and is found in a large class of verbs ; as, hnaka, to place or lay down, ohnaka, to place a thing in something else.

2. The prepositions which are either prefixed to or inserted into verbs, in the pronouns' place, are 'ki' and · kíći.'

a. • Ki,' as a preposition incorporated in verbs, means to or for, as, kaga, to make kićağa, to make to one; huwe ya, to go to bring any thing, kihuwe ya, to go to bring a thing for one.

b. • Kíći’ incorporated into verbs means for; as, kaksa, to chop off, as a stick ; kićićaksa, to chop off for one.

§ 93. The preposition i’ is prefixed to a class of adverbs giving them the force of prepositions. In these cases it expresses relation to or connexion with the preceding noun ; as, tehan, far, itehan, far from any time or place; heyata, behind, iheyata, back of something. These adverbial prepositions are such as: iako, beyond ihukuya, under

itehaŋ, far from ileyata, behind, back of itokam, before iaśkaday, near to ikanyeta, down from iwaykam, above ićahda, by, near to ikiyeday, near to iyohakam, after ihakam, behind isanpa, beyond

iyotaheday, between ihdukšan, round about itakasaŋpa, over from iyotahepi, between ihektam, behind itankan, without

iyotakoŋs, opposite to.

iakan, upon



§ 94. Conjunctions in Dakota, as in other languages, are used to connect words and sentences; as, waste ķa ksapa, good and wise ; wićaśta sićeća koya, men and children : “Uşkan Wakantayka, Ożaŋžan kta, eya : unkan oźanzaŋ,” And God said, · Let light be :' and light was.

§ 95. The following is a list of the principal conjunctions ; viz. : unkay, ķa and ça, and ; ko and koya, also, and ; unkaņš, kiŋhay and ćinhaŋ, kinahan and ćinahay, if ; eśta and śta, keś and ćeś, ķeś and çeś, although ; ķaeś and caeś, ķeyas and çeyaś, even if ; ķa iś, or ; tuka, but.



§ 96. It is very difficult to translate, or even to classify Dakota interjections. Those in common use may be arranged under the following heads, according to the emotions they express.

Pain : yuy! wiŋświ! ah! oh!
Regret: hehe! hehehe! hunhe! huyhuyhe! oh! alas !

Surprise : Kopidan! Hopida,niye ! hopidaŋśni ! iŋah ! inama ! inyun! iyanaka ! wonderful ! surprising ! astonishing ! truly ! indeed !

Attention: a! e! beś! hiwo! iho! ito! mah! toko! way! hark! look ! see! behold ! halloo !

Self-praise : ihdatan! ihdatank ! boast !

Affirmation : ećahe! ećaś! ećaeś! eeś! ehaes ! ektakaeś! eyakeś! eyaķeś ! nakas! nakaeś! indeed! truly ! yes !

Disbelief: eze! hes! hinte! Ho! Hoećak ! iyeśnića! olio! fie! fudge! you don't

say so!






Incorporated Pronouns.

§ 97. The incorporated pronouns are either prefixed to or inserted into verbs, adjectives, and nouns.

1. Position in Verbs.

§ 98. 1. a. Monosyllabic verbs, such as, ba, to blame, da, to ask for, etc., necessarily prefix the pronouns ; as, mayaba, (me-thou-blamest) thou blamest me.

b. Those verbs which are formed by adding the prefixes ó ka’ and “pa,' and also the possessive forms in “kpa’ or “tpa,''hda,” and “hdu,' have the pronouns prefixed; as, kaksa, to cut off with an axe, wakaksa, I cut off ; pagaŋ, to part with

any thing, wapagay, I part with ; kpagaŋ and tpaġay, to part with one's own, wakpagay, I part with my own ; hduta, to eat one's own, wahduta, I eat my own.

c. Other verbs, whose initial letter is d’or ók,' have the pronouns prefixed; as, daka, to esteem so, wadaka, I esteem so ; kaga, to make, yakaġa, thou makest.

d. For the forms of the subjective pronouns of the first person singular and the second person singular and plural of verbs in ‘ya’ and “yu,' see SS 39. 6, 50.

2. a. All verbs commencing with a vowel which is not a prefix, insert the pronouns immediately after the vowel ; as, opa, to follow, owapa, I follow ; excepting the first person plural, “ unk,' which is prefixed; as, unkopapi, we follow. But ouŋpapi is also used.

b. The prefixing of the prepositions “a,' 6e,‘i,” o,' does not alter the place of the pronouns; as, kaštan, to pour out, wakaśtan, I pour out ; okaśtaŋ, to pour out in, owakaśtay, I pour out in ; paħta, to bind, pawałta, I bind ; apaħta, to bind on, apawahta, I bind on.

c. Verbs formed from verbal roots and adjectives by prefixing “ba,' “bo,' and • na,' take the pronouns after the prefix; as, baksa, to cut off with a knife, bawaksa, I cut off ; boksa, to shoot off, as a limb, boyaksa, thou shootest off ; naksa, to break off with the foot, nawaksa, I break off with the foot.

d. Other verbs whose initial letter is 6,' • Ś,' 'm,' or n,' have the pronouns inserted after the first syllable ; as, capá, to stab, ćawápa, I stab ; máni, to walk,


mawáni, I walk. Pakta, to bind or tie, also inserts the pronouns after the first syllable.

e. Verbs that insert or prefix the prepositions • ki’ and · kíći,' take the pronouns immediately before the prepositions. See § 40. 5. a. b.

f. Active verbs formed from other verbs, adjectives, or nouns, by adding the causative ‘kiya’or ‘ya,' take the pronouns immediately before the causative; as, wanyagkiya, to cause to see, wanyagmakiya, he causes me to see ; samkiya, to blacken, samwakiya, I blacken ; tantekiya, to love, ćantewakiya, I love any one.

g. The compound personal and reflexive pronouns (S 24) occupy the same place in verbs as do the ordinary incorporated pronouns: as, wastedaka, to love, wastewadaka, I love any thing, waśtemiệidaka, I love myself.

2. Position in Adjectives.

§ 99. 1. a. The pronouns are prefixed to what may be called adjective verbs and adjectives ; as, yazan, to be sick, tanćan mayazaŋ, (body me-sick) my body is sick ; waste, good, niwaśte, (thee-good) thou art good.

b. The pronouns ‘ma, ni,' and 'un' are prefixed to the simple numerals; as, mawanžiday, I am one ; ninonpapi, you are two; unyamnipi, we are three.

2. a. But if the adjective verb has assumed the absolute form by prefixing • wa,” or if it commences with a vowel, the pronouns are inserted ; as, wayazaŋka, to be sick, wamayazayka, I am sick ; asni, to get well, amasni, I have recovered.

6. Waoŋsida and waćantkiya, and perhaps some others, which we are accustomed to call adjectives, insert the pronouns; as, waoņšiwada, I am merciful.

3. Position in Nouns.

§ 100. 1. a. The possessive pronouns are always prefixed to the noun. See $$ 21. 22. 23.

b. When a noun and pronoun are joined together, with the substantive verb understood, the incorporated pronoun is prefixed to some nouns, and inserted in others; as, nišunka, (thee-dog) thou art a dog ; winiłaśta, (thee-man) thou art a man ; Damakota, (me-Dakota) I am a Dakota.

In some nouns the pronoun may be placed either after the first or second syllable, according to the taste of the speaker; as, wićahinéa, an old man, wimaćaliņća or wićamahinća, I am an old man.

c. When a noun is used with an adjective or adjective verb, and a pronoun is required, it may be prefixed either to the noun or to the adjective; as, nape masuta, (hand me-hard) or minape suta, (my-hand hard) my hand is hard.

2. In nouns compounded of a noun and adjective, the place of the pronoun is between them; as, Isaŋtanka, (knife-big) an American, Isaymatanka, I am an American.

4. Position with respect to each other.

§ 101. 1. When one personal pronoun is the subject and another the object of the same verb, the first person, whether nominative or objective, is placed before the

second; as, mayaduhapi, (me-you-have) you have me ; unniyuhapi, (we-thee-have or we-you-have) we have thee or we have you.

2. Wića, the objective plural of the third person, when used in a verb with other pronouns, is placed first; as, wićawakaśka, (them-I-bound) I bound them.


§ 102. Incorporated pronouns, when intended to express plurality, have the plural termination pi attached to the end of the word, whether verb, noun, or adjective ; as, wayazay, he is sick, wauŋyazanpi, we are sick ; wakaga, I make any thing, unkagapi, we make ; nitasunke, thy dog, nitaśunkepi, thy dogs or your dog or dogs ; niwaste, thou art good, niwaśtepi, you are good.

Separate Pronouns.

§ 103. The separate personal pronouns stand first in the clauses to which they belong.

a. They stand first in propositions composed of a pronoun and noun, or of a pronoun and adjective; as, miye Isaymatayka, I am an American ; unkiye unćuwitapi, we are cold.

b. In a proposition composed of a pronoun and verb, whether the pronoun be the subject or object of the verb; as, unkiye unyaŋpi kta, we will go ; miye makaśka, (me he-bound) he bound me.

The separate pronouns are not needed for the purpose of showing the person and number of the verb, those being indicated by the incorporated pronouns, or inflexion of the verb; but they are frequently used for the sake of emphasis : as, nisunka he kupi he; hiya, he miye maķupi, (thy-brother that was-given ? no, that me me-was-given) was that given to thy brother ? no, it was given to me; ye maśi wo; hiya, miye mde kta, (to-go me-command ; no, me 1-go will) send me; no, I will go myself.

c. When a separate pronoun is used with a noun, one being the subject and the other the object of the same verb, the pronoun stands first; as, miye mini waćin, (me water I-want) I want water ; niye toka kiŋ niyuzapi, (you enemy the you-took) the enemies took you. But when the pronoun is the object, as in this last example, it may stand after the noun ; as, tóka kiŋ niye niyuzapi, (enemy the you you-took) the enemies took you.

d. In relative clauses, the separate pronoun is placed last ; as, wiłaśta hi ķon he miye, (man came that me) I am the man who came ; Óniliyapi kiŋ hena unkiyepi, (you-help the those we) we are they who help you.

e. The adverb • hiņća’ is often used with the separate pronouns to render them more emphatic ; as, miye hiņća, (me very) my very self ; niye nitawa hiyća, (thee thine very) truly thine own.

f. In answering questions, the separate pronouns are sometimes used alone; as, tuwe heco, he; miye, who did that? I; tuwe yaka he; niye, whom dost thou mean? thee ; tuwe he kağa he; iye, who made that ? he. But more frequently the verb is repeated in the answer with the pronouns ; as, he tuwe kağa he; he miye wakaga, (that who made ? that me I-made) who made that? I made it ; tuwe yaka he; niye ćića, (whom meanest-thou? thee, I-thee-mean) whom dost thou mean? I mean thee.

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