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Plural Termination.

§ 104. When the separate pronouns are used with verbs or adjectives, the plural termination is attached to the last word.

a. When the pronoun stands first, it is attached to the verb or adjective; as, unkiye ećonkupi, we did it ; niye yakagapi, you made it ; niye niwaśtepi, you are good.

6. When the pronoun stands last, it is attached also to the pronoun; as, tona waoyśidipi kiŋ hena niyepi, (as-many merciful the those you) you are they who are merciful.

Agreement of Pronouns. $ 105. Personal pronouns, and the relative and interrogative tuwe, who, refer only to animate objects, and agree in person with their antecedents, which are either expressed or understood; as, he tuwe, who is that? de miye, this is I; he Dawid tawa, that is David's ; he miye mitawa, that is mine ; he tuwe tawa, whose is that?

Omission of Pronouns.

§ 106. The third person, being the form of expression which most commonly occurs, is seldom distinguished by the use of pronouns.

1. a. There is no incorporated pronoun of the third person either singular or plural, except.wića’ and ta. See $$ 18. 6, 19. 4, 23. 1.

b. The separate pronoun‘iye’ of the third person, and its plural “iyepi,” are frequently used in the nominative and sometimes in the objective case.

2. But ordinarily, and always, except in the above cases, no pronoun of the third person is used in Dakota; as, siyo waŋ kute ķa o, (grouse a shot and killed) he shot a grouse and killed it ; śuktanka kin yuzapi ķa kaśka hdepi, (horse the caught and tied placed) they caught the horse and tied him.

Repetition of Pronouns. § 107. 1. In the case of verbs connected by conjunctions, the incorporated subjective pronouns of the first and second persons must be repeated, as in other languages, in each verb; as, wahi, ķa waŋmdake, ¢a ohiwaya, I came, and I saw, and I conquered.

2. a. • Wića’ and other objective incorporated pronouns follow the same rule ; as, tatayka kiŋ waŋwićamdake ţa wilawakte, (buffalo the, them-I-saw, and them-I-killed) I saw the buffalo and killed them.

b. So too in adjective verbs; as, onniśike ţa niśiktin, (thee-poor and thee-feeble) thou art poor and feeble.

3. Two or more nouns connected by conjunctions require the possessive pronoun to be used with each; as, nitasunke ķa nitamazakas, thy-dog and thy-gun.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

§ 108. Demonstrative pronouns may generally be used in Dakota wherever they would be required in English.

1. When a demonstrative pronoun forms with a noun, pronoun, adjective, or verb, a proposition, of which it is the subject or object, it is placed first; as, hena tataŋkapi, those are oxen ; de miye, this is I; dena wasteśte, these are good ; he mayaķu, (that me-thou-gavest) thou gavest me that.

2. But when used as a qualificative of a noun, or noun and adjective, it is placed last; as, wićaśta kiŋ hena, (man the those) those men ; wićaśta waste kiŋ dena, (man good the these) these good men.

§ 109. The demonstrative pronouns he’ and “hena’ are often used where personal pronouns would be in English ; as, ate umaši kiŋ he wilayadapi śni, (father me-sent the that ye-believe not) my father who sent me, him ye believe not ; ate umaśi kiŋ he mahdaotanin, (father me-sent the that me-declareth) my father who sent me he beareth witness of me.

§ 110. Demonstrative pronouns are often used in Dakota when they would not be required in English ; as, isaŋ kiŋ he iwaću, (knife the that I-took) I took the knife.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

$ 111. 1. Tuwe, who, and taku, what, are used, both as interrogative and relative pronouns, and in both cases they stand at the beginning of the phrase or sentence; as, tuwe yaka he, whom dost thou mean? taku odake ćiŋ, what thou relatest.

2. a. In affirmative sentences, tuwe' and 'taku’ are often used as nouns, the former meaning some person, and the latter, some thing ; as, tuwe he manon, some one has stolen that ; taku iyewaya, I have found something.

b. In negative sentences with day' suffixed, tuwe may be rendered no one, and taku nothing ; as, tuweday hi śni, no one came (lit. some-little-person came not); takuday duhe śni, (some-little-thing thou-hast not) thou hast nothing. See $ 25. 3.

$ 112. It has been shown (§ 25. 1) that compound relative pronouns are formed by joining “kaśta’ or · kakeś to “tuwe' and “taku;' as, tuwe kaśta hi kiyhan he waķu kta, (whoever comes if, that I-give will) if any one comes, I will give it to him ; taku kašta waŋmdake ćinha, wakute kta, (whatever 1-see if, I-shoot will) if I see any thing I will shoot it, or I will shoot whatever I see.

ARTICLES.

Definite Article.

Position

$ 113. 1. When a noun is used without any qualificative, the definite article immediately follows the noun ; as, maka kiŋ, (earth the) the earth ; wiłaśta kiŋ waste, (man the good) the man is good.

2. When a noun is used with an adjective as a qualifying term, the article follows the adjective; as, wićasta waste kiŋ, (man good the) the good man.

3. When the noun is followed by a verb, an adverb and verb, or an adjective, adverb, and verb, the definite article follows at the end of the phrase, and is generally rendered into English by a demonstrative or relative pronoun and article ; as, taku

ećamoy kiŋ, (what I-did the) that which I did ; wićasta sićaya ohanyaŋpi kiŋ, (men badly do the) the men who do badly; witaśta sića śićaya oħanyanpi kiŋ, (men bad badly do the) the bad men who do badly.

114. The signs of the past tense, • ķon' and ciķoŋ,' are used in the place of the definite article, and are rendered by the article and relative ; as, wićaśta waymdake ćiķoy, the man whom I saw.

Use.

$ 115. In general, the definite article in Dakota is used where it would be in English. But it also occurs in many places where in English it is not admissible.

a. It is used with nouns that denote a class; as, wićaśta kiŋ bosdan naziņpi, (men the upright stand) men stand upright; śuktanka kiŋ duzahanpi, (horses the swift) horses are swift or run fast.

b. It is often used, as in Greek, French, etc., with abstract nouns; as, wowaśte kiŋ, (goodness the) goodness ; woalitani kiŋ awihnuniwićaya, (sin the destroys-them) sin destroys them.

c. It is used with a noun in the vocative case; as, maka kiŋ nakon wo, (earth the hear-thou) O earth, hear !

d. As in Greek and Italian, it is used with nouns which are qualified by possessive or demonstrative pronouns; as, ninape kiŋ, (thy-hand the) thy hand; wićasta kiŋ de, (man the this) this man.

e. It is often used with finite verbs giving to them the force of gerunds or verbal nouns; as, kagapi kiy, the making ; mauŋnipi kiŋ, (we walk the) our walking ; yahi kiŋ iyomakipi, (thou-come the me-pleases) thy coming pleases me.

§ 116. In Dakota, the definite article is sometimes omitted where it would be required in English.

a. Nouns governed by prepositions are generally used without the article; as, conkaśke ekta mda, (garrison to l-go) I am going to the garrison ; ćay mahen wai, (wood into I-went) I went into the woods ; tinta akan munka, (prairie upon I-lie) I lie

upon the prairie.

b. Proper names and names of rivers and lakes are commonly used without the article; as, Tatanka-nažin, (buffalo-stands) The-standing-buffalo; Wakpa-minisota, the Minnesota river ; Mdeiyeday, Lac-qui-parle.

c. When two nouns come together in the relation of possessor and possessed (8 68), the last only takes the article, or rather the entire expression is rendered definite by a single article placed after it; as, tanpahmihma ihupa kiŋ, the thill of the cart ; Wašićuŋ wićaśtayatapi kiŋ, the King of the French.

Indefinite Article.

§ 117. The indefinite article is more limited in its use than the definite, but so far as its use extends it follows the same rules; as, hoksidaŋ way, (boy a) a boy ; hoksidaŋ waste way, (boy good a) a good boy.

§ 118. Sometimes both articles are used in the same phrase, in which case the

definite is rendered by the relative (see $ 113. 3); as, wićasta waŋ waste kin he kaga, (man a good the that made) he was a good man who made that.

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§ 119. 1. Dakota verbs are usually placed after the nouns with which they are used, whether subject or object; as, hoksidaŋ kiŋ mani, (boy the walks) the boy walks ; wowapi wan duha, (book a thou-hast) thou hast a book.

2. Verbs also are usually placed after the adjectives which qualify their subjects or objects, and after the adverbs which qualify the verbs ; as, Waanatay wićašta wayapike ćiŋ he tayyan waŋmdaka, (Waanatan man eloquent the that well I-saw) I saw Waanatan the eloquent man very plainly.

For the relative position of verbs and personal pronouns, see § 98.

Number.

Plural.

§ 120. A verb, by its form, designates the number of its subject or object, or both; that is to say, the verb, being the last principal word in the sentence, usually takes the plural ending ‘pi’ when the subject or object is plural in signification.

1. a. When the subject represents animate objects, the verb takes the plural termination; as, manipi, they walk; wićaśta kiŋ hipi, (man the came) the men came.

b. But when the subject of a verb denotes inanimate objects, the verb does not take a plural form for its nominative's sake; as, taŋ topa ićaġa, (tree four grows) four trees grow.

2. a. A verb also takes the plural termination when it has a plural object of the first or second persons; as, Wakaŋtanka unkaġapi, (God us-made) God made us ; Dakota niye Wakaŋtanka éantenićiyapi, (Dakota you God you-loves) God loves you Dakotas.

b. When the plural object is of the third person, this plurality is pointed out by wića, them, incorporated in the verb; as, waŋwićayaka, he saw them Hake waħanksića yamni wićakte, (Hake bear three them-killed) Hake killed three bears.

§ 121. As there is but one termination to signify plurality both of the subject and object, ambiguity is sometimes the result.

a. When the subject is of the first, and the object is of the second person, the plural termination may refer either to the subject or to the subject and object; as, wasteuynidakapi, we love thee, or we love you.

b. When the subject is of the third, and the object of the second person, the plural termination may refer either to the subject or the object, or to both; as, wastenidakapi, they love thee, he loves you, or they love you. .

§ 122. Nouns of multitude commonly require verbs in the plural number; as, oyate hećoypi, the people did that.

§ 123. The verb 'yukan’ is often used in its singular form with a plural meaning; as, wakiyeda, ota yukay, there are many pigeons.

§ 124. The verb “yeya,' and its derivatives ‘iyeya,' “hiyeya,' etc., have rarely a plural termination though used with a plural subject; as, wilota hen hiyeya, many

persons are there.

Dual.

§ 125. 1. The dual is used only as the subject of the verb and to denote the person speaking and the person spoken to. It has the same form as the plural pronoun of the first person, excepting that it does not take the termination “pi.'

2. Hence, as this pronoun is, in meaning, a combination of the first and second persons, it can be used only with an object of the third person, except when, the agent and patient being the same persons, it assumes the reflexive form ($ 24.); as, waśteundaka, we two (meaning thou and I) love him ; wastewićundaka, we two love them. See § 42. 1.

Government of Verbs.

§ 126. Active transitive verbs govern the objective case; as, makaśka, (ine binds) he binds me ; wiłaśta way waŋmdaka, (man a 1-saw) I saw a man.

§ 127. Active verbs may govern two objectives.
1. A verb may govern two direct objects or so-called accusatives.

When an action on a part of the person is spoken of, the whole person is represented by an incorporated pronoun, and the part by a noun in apposition with the pronoun; as, nape mayaduza, (hand me-thou-takest) thou takest me by the hand, or thou takest my hand. Compare the French, 'me prendre la main.'

2. A verb may govern a direct object or accusative and an indirect object answering to a dative.

a. When one of the objects is a pronoun, it must be attached to the verb; as, wowapi kiŋ he mayaķu kta, (book the that me-thou-give wilt) thou wilt give me that book.

b. But when both the objects are nouns, the indirect is usually placed before the direct object; as, Hepan wowapi yaķu kta, (Hepan book thou-give wilt) thou wilt give Hepan a book ; Hepi taspaŋtanka wan hiyukiya wo, (Hepi apple a toss) toss Hepi an apple.

§ 128. Transitive verbs with the prepositions ‘a’or “o'prefixed may govern two objectives, and even three when two of them refer to the same person or thing; as, śina kiŋ anićalipapi, (blanket the on-thee-laid) they covered thee with a blanket ; mini pa amakastan, (water head on-me-poured) he poured water on my head.

$ 129. Intransitive verbs, with the prepositions "a' or 'o'prefixed, govern an objective case; as, mani, to walk, tanku kiŋ omani, (road the in-walks) he walks in the road; hay, to stand, maka kiŋ awahan, (earth the on-I-stand) I stand on the earth.

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