Imágenes de páginas

pronoun, the adverb • śni; as, mde śni, (I-go not) I did not go; he ćaŋ śni, (that wood not) that is not wood.

2. An emphatic negation is sometimes indicated by “kaća,' which however is seldom used except in contradicting what has been previously said; as, yao kača, thou didst not hit it.

3. A negative used interrogatively often implies permission; as, iyaću śni to, (dost thou not take it ?) may signify, thou mayest take it.

§ 183. 1. In Dakota, two negatives make an affirmative; as, wanića, there is none; waniće śni, (there-is-none not) i. e. there is some. 2. When two negative verbs are connected by a conjunction, the first may

be without the sign of negation; as, kakipe ça iyotan tanka śni, (he-surpassed and more great not) he neither surpassed nor was the greatest.

Signs of Interrogation.

§ 184. 1. 'He' is the common interrogative particle, and is placed at the end of the sentence; as, wićayada he, dost thou believe ?

2. When the person spoken to is at a distance, 'hwo,' compounded of he' and .wo,’ is used; as, toki da hwo, whither art thou going ? This last is not used by females.

3. Sometimes “ka' is employed instead of "he,' as the sign of interrogation; as, he taku hogan ka, what kind of fish is that?

4. Sometimes, however, the interrogation is distinguished only by the tone of voice. Unlike the English, the voice falls at the close of all interrogative sentences.



§ 185. Prepositions are placed after the nouns which they govern.

a. Some are written as separate words (S 89); as, maka kiŋ akan, on the earth ; tipi ićahda, by the house ; conkaśke ekta, at the garrison. In this case plurality of the noun is expressed by ówića' incorporated into the preposition; as, tatanka kin wićikiyedaŋ, (ox the them-near-to) near to the oxen ; Dakota ewibatanhay, from the Dakotas.

b. Other prepositions are suffixed to nouns (§ 91); as, tiŋtata, on the prairie ; magata, at the field ; tayyata, at the woods.

c. And others are prefixed to the following verb (S 92); as, amani, to walk on ; ićekiya, to pray for.

2. a. Pronouns governed by a preposition are sometimes prefixed to it, in which case those prepositions which have ‘i' for their initial letter cause an elision of the last vowel of the pronoun; as, ikiyeday, near to, mikiyedan, near to me; itehan, far from, nitehaŋ, far from thee. If the pronoun is plural, the plural termination is attached to the preposition; as, unketayhanpi, from us.

b. Sometimes the pronoun is inserted in the preposition, if the latter consists of more than two syllables ; as, enitanhay, from thee.

c. And sometimes it is contained in the following verb; as, en mau, he is coming to me, ekta nipi, they went to you.

§ 186. Of the two prepositions ‘kili' and 'om,' both meaning with, the former governs singular and the latter plural nouns; as, he kići mde kta, I will go with him ; hena om mde kta, I will go with them.

§ 187. 1. The names of the natural divisions of time, when they refer to the past, terminate in ‘hay,' and when to the future, in ‘tu;' as, wehan, last spring ; wetu, next spring

The termination tu' or "etu,' in waniyetu, mdoketu, ptanyetu, wetu, hanyetu, an petu, litayetu, etc., may have been originally a preposition, signifying, as it still does in other cases, at or in ; and the termination ‘han,' in wanihan, wehan, mdokehan, ptinhan, etc., is probably the adverbial ending.

2. The preposition “i' prefixed to the natural divisions of time signifies the next after ; as, iwetu, the spring following ; imdoketu, the next summer ; ihanhanna, the next morning



§ 188. 1. Conjunctions commonly stand between the words or sentences which they connect; as, małpiya ķa maka, heaven and earth ; wayćiyaka tuka iyelićiye śni, I saw thee but I did not recognise thee ; elon yasi eśta ećon kte śni, (do thoutold although, do will not) although thou told him to do it, he will not.

2. But the conjunctions • ko' or koya’ and “ahna’ are placed after the words they connect; as, čanka waŋhi ko mduha, (fire-steel flint also I have) I-have flint and steel ; maħpiya maka ahna kaga, he made heaven and earth.

§ 189. “Uŋkan’and • ķa’ both signify and, but they are used somewhat differently, ķa' denoting a closer connexion than “unkan.'

1. When two or more verbs having the same nominative are connected by a copulative conjunction, • ķa’ is commonly used; as, ekta wai ķa waymdaka, I went and saw. But if a new nominative is introduced, “unkan’ will be required; as, ekta wai unkaŋ wanmayakapi, I went there and they saw me.

2. When after a period the sentence begins with a conjunction, • ķa' is not used unless the sentence is closely connected with the preceding one.

3. “Uykan’ never connects single nouns or adjectives, •ķa' and “ko’ being used for that purpose; as, waste ķa ksapa, good and wise ; lan mini ko, wood and


For the use of the conjunctions kinhan, unkans, and tuká, sce 8 133.

§ 190. The words .ećin’and . nakaeś, although more properly adverbs, often supply the place of conjunctions; as, he waķu, ećiy makida, I gave that to him, because he asked me for it ; he tewahinda, nakaeś heledaŋ mduha, I refused that, because it was the only one I had.

§ 191. The idea conveyed by the conjunction than, cannot be expressed in Dakota directly. Such a phrase as, “It is better for me to die than to live,” may

indeed be rendered by an awkward periphrasis, in several ways; as, mațe ćiŋ he waste ķa wani kiŋ he šića, for me to die is good, and to live is bad ; wani kiŋ he waste esta mațe ćiŋ he iyotaŋ waste, although it is good for me to live, it is more good for me to die ; or, mațe kte ćiŋ he waste ķa wani kte ćin he sića, that I should die is good, and that I should live is bad.

§ 192. The conjunction or is represented by •ķa iś ;' but the sentences in which it is introduced have not the same brevity as in English; as, I do not know whether he is there or not, hen un ķa iś hen uŋ śni, uşma tukte iyećetu sdonwaye śni, (there is or there is not, which of the two I know not ;) Is that a horse or an ox ? he suktanka ķa iś tatanka uŋma tukte hećetu he, (that horse or ox, which of the two ?)



$ 193. Some interjections have no connexion with other words, while others are used only as a part of a sentence. When connected with other words, interjections usually stand at the beginning of the phrase. Considerable knowledge of their use is necessary to enable one to understand the language well, as the interjections not only serve to indicate the feelings of the speaker, but often materially modify the meaning of a sentence; as, hehehe, didita on mațe kta, oh! I shall die of

" Wićoni kiŋ iho hee; wićoni kiŋ he wićaśta iyožanzaŋ kiŋ iho hee,” (Life the lo ! that is ; life the that man light the lo ! that is) John i. 4.

heat ;





them-he gave.

Wićaśta wan ćinhintku nonpa : unkan hakakata kiŋ he atkuku kin Man


two :

and youngest the that father-his the hećiya : Ate, woyuha mitawa ktećin he miću-wo, cya. Uykan said-to-him : Father, goods mine will-be the that me-mine-give, he-said. And woyuha kin yuakipam wićaķu. Uŋkan iyohakam aŋpetu tonana, binhiŋtku goods the dividing

And after day few, son-his hakakta ķon he

ķon he owasiŋ witaya tpahi, ķa itehayyan makoće waŋ ekta youngest that-was that all together his-gathered, and a-far-off country

to ićimani ya; ķa hen śikan ohanyaŋpi kiŋ oy, taku yuhe éin owasin hdutakuniśni. travelling went; and there bad doings the by, what he-had the all he-destroyed. Uykaŋ owasiŋ waynahdusote (ehay, makoće kiŋ he en wilaakihan hinéa ; And all

he-had-spent when, country the that in famine very ; uŋkan hiŋnakaha wićakiza. Uykay makoće kiŋ hen unpi kiŋ wanži ti kiŋ ekta

and consequently he-was-in want. And country the there dwelt the house the


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not ;




i, ķa kići yanka; unkan he maga kiŋ ekta kukuśe wo wilaķu kte yeśi. went, and with

was ;
and that-one field the

swine food them-give should sent. Uŋkan kukuśe taku yutapi kiŋ heeś on wipiiciye waćin; tuka tuwedan dotoķu And swine what

the even that with fill-himself desired; but some-one food-gave-him śni. Uyka, wanna iệiksuye cehan heya: Ate wićasta opewićatoŋ kiŋ And now remembered-himself when this-said : My-father

them-bought the heća tona wićayuha, ķa hena aġuyapi iyakiçuya

iyakićuya yuhapi, tuka miye ķe such how-many them-has, and those bread more-than-enough have,

I myself wotektehdapi kin on atakuniśni amayan le. Ito nawazin, ķa ate ekta

hunger the by-means-of to-nothing I-go. Lo! I-arise, and my-father to wahde ¢a, hewakiye kta; Ate, malipiya kin ekta ķa niye nakuŋ nitokam 1-go-home and, to-him-I-say-this will; Father, heaven the against and thee also

thee-before wawahtani; ķa detayhan Ćinćamayaye kta iyemaćeće śni; wićašta I-have-sinned ; and from-this tim?, child-me-thou-have shouldst such-I opewićayaton kiŋ heeś wanźi iyećeća makaga wo, epe kta će, eya. Unkan them-thou-hast-bought the

like me-make, I-say will, he-said. And nazin-hiyaye, ça atkuku ekta ki. Tuka nahahin itehaŋ ku, atkuku

he-arose-up, and father-his to went-home. But. while-still far-off coming-home, father-his wanhdake ţa, oyśikida ķa, inyang ye ça, poskin hduze ça, iikputaka. Uŋkan

saw-him, and had-compassion, and running went, and by-the-neck clasped, and kissed-him. And ćinhiŋtku kiŋ heliya : Ate, maħpiya kiŋ ekta ķa niye nitokam wawaħtani, ķa

son-his the this-said-to-him: Father, heaven the and thee thee-before I-have-sinned, and detayhan cinéamayaye ktećin he iyemaćeće śni, eya. from-this-time child-me-thou-have shouldst the that such-I not, he said.

Tuka atkuku kiŋ taokiye kiŋ hewićakiya: Śina iyotan waste kin he au-po, ķa

But father-his the his-servant the this-to-them-said : Blanket most good the that bring, und inkiya-po; ķa mazanapéupe way nape kiŋ en iyekiya-po ; ķa siha haŋpa ohekiyaput-on-him-ye; and finger-ring

hand the on put-ye;

and feet moccasins put-on-him po; ķa ptežićadan ćemyapi kiŋ he den au-po, ķa kte-po; wauntapi ķa ye; and cow-calf


the that here bring-ye, and kill-ye; we-eat and unkiyuśkiŋpi kta će. Milinkši kiŋ de ța, unkan kini ; taniŋśni ķa iyeyapi, we-rejoice will. My-son the this dead, and lives-again;

lost and is-found, eya. Uykay hinnakaha wiyuśkiŋpi. he-said. And immediately they-rejoiced. Uŋkan binhiŋtku tokapa ķon, he magata'un : unkan tikiyaday ku

ća And son-his

eldest that-was, that field-at was : and house-near-to come-home when dowanpi ķa walipi nahon. Uŋkan ookiye wayźi kipan, ķa hena token kapi singing and dancing he-heard. And

he-called-to, and these-things how meant hećinhay, he iwaŋga. Uŋkan hećiya : Nisuyka

unkan if, that he-inquired. And he-said-this-to-him : Thy-younger-brother has-come-home ; and ni un ķa zaniyan hdi kiŋ; heoy-etayhay niyate ptežićadaŋ ćemyapi alive is and well has-come-home

therefore thy-father cow-calf fatted






the ;


not ;

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not :

ķon he kikte će, eya. Unkan helen śihda, ķa tin kihde waćin that-was that killed, he-said. And

he-was-angry, and into-the-house he-go-home desired śni; hehan atkuku kiŋ taŋkan hiyu ķa cekiya. Uykan hehan wayupte ça

then father-his the out came and besought-him. And then he-answered and atkuku kin hetiya ; Iho, waniyetu ota wanna waoćićiye, ¢a

ça iyae ćin father-his the this-said-to; Lo! winter


I-have-helped-thee, and thy-word the tohiyni kawape śni; hećeća eśta, kodawićawayećin om wimduśkin kta

I-passed-beyond not; thus although, friend-them-I-have the with I-rejoice might e tohiŋni taciņéadaŋ wanźi mayaķu śni be: Tuka niliyksi witkowiŋpi kiŋ om at-any-time deer-child one me-thou-gavest

But thy-son harlots the with woyuha nitawa kiŋ temnićiye éin de hdi ća, wancake ptezićadaŋ ćemyapi property thy the eaten-up-for-thee the this come-home when, al-once cow-calf falted kiŋ he

yećićața će, eya. Unkan heliya; Ćins ohiŋniyan mići the that thou-for-him-hast-killed, he-said. And this-he-said-to-him ; Son always me-with yauŋ ; ķa taku mduhe éiŋ he iyulipa nitawa. Nisuyka

kiŋ de

ţa unkan thou-art ; and what I have the that all thine. Thy-younger-brother the this was-dead and kini; taniyśni, unkan iyeyapi kiŋ heon etayhan ito, ćante unwaśtepi ķa has-come-to-life ; was-lost,

is-found the therefore lo! heart we-good and unkiyuśkiŋpi ktećiŋ he hecetu će, eya će.

we-rejoice should the that is-right, he-said.



Itanéan tawočekiye kiŋ.
Lord his-prayer the.


Ateuŋyaŋpi mahpiya ekta nanke ćin; Nićaže kiŋ wakandapi kte; Nitokićonze Father-we-have heaven in thou-art the; Thy-name the holy-regarded shall; Thy-kingdom kiŋ u kte.

Małpiya ekta token nitawaćiŋ econpi kin, maka akan helen econpi the come shall. Heaven in how thy-will is-done the, earth upon

done nunwe. Anpetu kin de taku-yutapi unķu-po: ķa wauyktanipi kiŋ unkićićażużu-po, may-it-be.

Day the this food us-give: and our-trespasses the erase-for-us, unkiś iyećen tona ećinśniyaŋ unkokićihanyaŋpi hena iyećen wićuŋkićićažužupi like-as as-may-as wrongly have-done-to-us those

them-we-forgive kin. Wowawiyutanye kiŋ he en iyaye unyanpi śni-po, ka taku śića etayhan the. Temptation the that into to-go

not, and what bad from eunhdaku-po. Wokićonze kin, wowaś’ake kiŋ, wowitan kiŋ, henakiya owihanke us-deliver. Kingdom the, strength

glory the all-these end wanin nitawa nuŋwe.

Amen. thine may-be. Amen.






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