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the religious ceremonies of this people without being deeply impressed with the fact, that what Paul said of the Athenians is true, to a very great extent, of the Dakotas, xarà sávra is olovda Moveotégoi, in all things very worshipful. It will not, then, be regarded as an unnecessary work, to make known to such a people the God who made the earth and all things therein, and who has appointed a day in the which he will judge the world in righteousness, by that Man whom he hath ordained, even the Lord Jesus Christ.

That the aboriginal tribes of this continent are destined to become extinct, and that consequently there is little reason to hope that any thing can be done for their permanent good, seems to be a very common impression. In regard to this point there are a few questions which deserve to be noticed briefly.

First, it must be conceded, as a matter of history, that many tribes and bands which once inhabited the country now occupied by the people of these United States have greatly diminished, and some of them have disappeared altogether. War, and spirit-water,' and the diseases introduced among them by the white people, have wrought out their legitimate effects. A different course of treatment would undoubtedly have greatly modified or entirely changed the character of these results. But, admitting the worst in regard to the past, an interesting question here presents itself, viz. : How far has the diminution of the Indians, as such, served to increase the numbers of our own white population ?

Secondly, in reference to the question of decrease, there are some sources of deception of which most persons do not seem to be aware. The Dakotas, for instance, twenty years ago, were supposed to number thirty thousand; but our investigations have led us to estimate them at twenty-five thousand. If, twenty years from this time, it shall appear that they do not number more than twenty thousand (which may be the case), the natural inference will uudoubtedly be that they have been decreasing. But we think there is evidence to show that this has not been and is not now the fact. Where an account of the births and deaths has been kept at a village, it is found that the former usually exceed the latter. If it is asked, • Whence then comes this supposed diminution of numbers ? I answer, from the fact that in most if not all cases the wild Indians have been greatly over-estimated. It has been found not only difficult, but oftentimes impossible, to take a correct census of those bands who receive annuities from the United States Government. But the difficulty is greatly increased when we go into their camps on the great prairies of the West. The traveller finds them very sensibly impressed with their own numerical importance, and not unfrequently has his gravity disturbed by the question, whether the Government of the United States would not probably be defeated in case of a collision with them. He also finds much opposition to his making any systematic efforts to ascertain their real numbers. The only practicable method one can adopt is to count their tipis, or skin tents; and it were easier to count ten thousand buffaloes, scattered over a hundred hills and valleys, than to make a reliable estimate of a tribe of Indians who are constantly roving over the western prairies. With this experience in efforts to ascertain the number of our wandering tribes, we are forced to the conclusion that in most, if not all cases, they have been overestimated ; and consequently the reduction of their computed numbers has arisen only from a closer approximation to truth, and should not be received as evidence that they are decreasing.

But there is one way in which a diminution of some tribes is taking place, viz. : by ceasing to be Indians and becoming members of civilized society. In Minnesota all persons of mixed blood, i. e. of white and Indian descent, are recognised as citizens of the Territory. Let this privilege be extended, on certain conditions, to the whole nation, as well as to all others, and many of them will soon come up to the stature of men. The Indian tribes of our continent may become extinct as such ; but if this extinction is brought about by introducing them to civilization and christianity, and merging them into our own great nation, which is receiving accretions from all others, who will deplore the result? Rather let us labor for it, realizing that if by our efforts they cease to be Indians and become fellow-citizens, it will be our glory and joy. So may our Christian American nation go on gathering into its fraternal arms all peoples and languages, and thus work out its mission of peace and good-will.


1. Sioux Spelling Book, designed for the use of native learners. 12mo., pp. 22. Boston : Crocker and

Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M. 1836. 2. Wiconi Owihanke Wannin Tanin Kin. 12mo., pp. 23. Boston : Crocker and Brewster, for the

A. B. C. F. M. 1837. This little tract contains Dr. Watts's Second Catechism for Children,

translated into the Dakota by Joseph Renville, Sen., and Dr. T. S. Williamson. 3. The Dakota First Reading Book. 18mo., pp. 50. Cincinnati, Ohio : Kendall and Henry, for the

A. B. C. F. M. 1839. Prepared by Gideon H. Pond and Stephen R. Riggs. 4. Josep Oyakapi Kin--the History of Joseph and his Brethren. 18mo., pp. 40. Cincinnati : Kendall

and Henry, for the A. B. C. F. M. 1839. This is a translation of the narrative recorded in

Genesis, by Rev. Gideon H. and Samuel W. Pond. 5. Old Testament Extracts. 18mo., pp. 120. Cincinnati, Ohio: Printed by Kendall and Henry, for

the A. B. C. F. M. 1839. This volume contains extracts from Genesis and the Psalms, the third

chapter of Proverbs, and the third chapter of Daniel. 6. Wotanin Waxte Markus Owa Kin Dee. The Gospel of Mark. 18mo., pp. 96. Cincinnati : Kendall

and Henry, for the A. B. C. F. M. 1839. The translations of this and the Old Testament Extracts were made from the French by Mr. Joseph Renville, Sen. ; written out and prepared for

the press by Dr. T. S. Williamson. 7. Wowapa Mitawa-My Own Book. 12 mo., pp. 64. Boston : Crocker and Brewster, for the

A. B. C. F. M. 1842. Prepared from Rev. T. H. Gallaudet's Mother's Primer' and Child's

Picture Defining and Reading Book,' by S. R. Riggs, A. M. 8. Wowapi Inonpa : The Dakota Second Reading Book. 18mo., pp. 54. Boston: Crocker and

Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M. 1812. By Rev. S. W. Pond. This little volume, designed for a

school book, consists of Bible stories from the Old Testament. 9. Dakota Dowanpi Kin-Dakota Hymns. 18mo., pp. 97. Boston : Crocker and Brewster, for the

A. B. C. F. M. 1842. These Hymns were composed in the Dakota language by Mr. Joseph

Renville and Sons, and the Missionaries of the Am. Board. 10. Woahope Wikcemna Kin. (Sheet.) The Ten Commandments and the Lord's Prayer, in the

Dakota language. Boston : 1842. 11. Eliza Marpicokawin, Raratonwan oyate en Wapiye sa ; qa Sara warpanica qon, &c. 12mo., pp. 12.

Boston : Crocker and Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M. 1842. A narrative of pious Indian

women : published by the American Tract Society. 12. Wicoicage Wowapi qa Odowan Wakan, &c. : The Book of Genesis, a part of the Psalms, and the

Gospels of Luke and John. 12mo., pp. 295. Cincinnati, Ohio : Kendall and Barnard, for the A. B. C. F. M. 1842. These translations were made partly from the original Hebrew and Greek, and partly from the French, into Dakota, by Dr. T. S. Williamson, Rev. G. H. Pond, S. R. Riggs,

and Joseph Renville, Sen. 13. Jesus Ohnihde Wicaye cin Oranyanpi Qon: qa Palos Wowapi Kage ciqon, &c. 12mo., pp. 228.

Cincinnati, Ohio : Kendall and Barnard, for the American Bible Society. 1843. This volume contains the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of Paul, and the Revelation of John, in the Dakota

language, translated from the Greek by Stephen R. Riggs, A. M. 14. Dakota Wiwangapi Wowapi : Sioux Catechism. 12mo., pp. 12. 1844. New Haven, Conn.: Hitch

cock and Stafford, for the A. B, C. F. M. By Rev. S. W. Pond. 15. Dakota Tawoonspe, or Dakota Lessons : a book designed for Schools. 12mo., pp. 96. Louisville,

Ky. 1850. Prepared by S. R. Riggs. The printing of this little book was superintended by

Rev. R. Hopkins. 16. Dakota Tawaxitku Kin, The Dakota Friend, a small monthly paper, in Dakota and English,

published at St. Paul by the Dakota Mission. 1851-52. Rev. G. H. Pond, Editor. 17. Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota Language (the present work). 4to., pp. 412.

1852. 18. An English and Dakota Vocabulary, by a Member of the Dakota Mission. 8vo., pp. 120. A re

print of the English-Dakota part of the large Dictionary. Printed by R. Craighead, 53 Vesey street, New York, 1852.


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D A K O T A G R A M M A R.

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§ 1. The vowels are five in number, and have each one uniform sound, except when followed by the nasal • ŋ,' which somewhat modifies them.

a, has the sound of English a in father.
e, has the sound of English e in they, or of a in face.
i, has the sound of i in marine, or of e in me.
O, has the sound of English o in
u, has the sound of English u in rule, or of oo in food.

go, note.


§ 2. The consonants are twenty-four in number, exclusive of the sound represented by the apostrophe (').

b, has its common English sound. ć, is an aspirate with the sound of English ch, as in chin. This was formerly

represented by c simply. ¢, is an emphatic Ć. It is formed by pronouncing • 6' with a strong pressure

of the organs, followed by a sudden expulsion of the breath. d, has the common English sound. g,

has the sound of g hard, as in go. ġ, represents a deep sonant guttural resembling the Arabic ghain (ė).

Formerly represented by g simply. h, has the sound of h in English. ħ, represents a strong surd guttural resembling the Arabic kha (3). For

merly represented by r. k, has the same sound as in English.

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