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pa-zi'-ća, v. a. to rub, roll out or stretch with the
hand, -wapazića. pa-zig'-zi-ća, v. red. of pazića. pa-zo', v. a. to show, present any thing to view
wapazo, unpazopi. pa-zo'-ki-ya, v. to cause to show,-pazowakiya. pa-zun', cont. of pazunta; pazun owatoy, I wear
it only run up. pa-zun'-ta, v. a. to sew or run up at the sides
some distance from the edge, as leggins, -wapa
zunta. pa-za', or pažan, adv. through: paza capa, to
stab through. pa-żan', adv. See paźa. pa-zan'-ya, adv. through and through. pa-za'-ta, v. a. to make forked by punching,
wapažata. pa-za'-ża, v. a. to wash, as a gun, by pushing
and pulling,-wapaźaza. pa-zim', cont. of pažipa; pazim iyeya. pa-zim'-żi-pa, v. red. of paźipa. pa-zin', v. to prevent. See ipažin, kipažin, wi
pažin, and wapazin. pa-zi'-pa, v. a. to prick with a pin ; to pinch ; to
bite, as mosquitoes do,wapazipa. pa-żo'-dan, n. a high knoll or hill, the top of a
hill. pa-żo'-ya, adv. hill-like, swelled up. pa-zun', v. a. to push down and pry up, as a
root; to pull up, as ducks do grass roots in
water,—wapazun. pa-żu'-żu, v. a. to rub out, cross out, erase, -wa
paźuzu. pće-ya', v. a. to cut and dry meat of any kind,
péewaya. See wapéeya. pe, the precatory plur. imperat. termination of
verbs, used commonly by women, as, ećon pe, do
ye do it. pe, n. the top of the head. pe, adj. sharp, as edged tools; pointed. pe-cus', cont. of pećuza: wi pecus wanka, there
are sun dogs. pe-cus'-ya, adv. wi pełusya wanka; said when
mock suns are observed. pe-cu'-za, n. sun-dogs, mock-suns. pe-ġe', n. the side or height of a vessel. pe-han', v. a. to fold up any thing,wapehan :
pehan ehnaka, to fold up and lay away. pe-han', n. the crane, of several species. . pe-han'-ġi-dan, n. the grey or sand-hill crane. pe-han'-han, v. red, of pehan; to writhe or
move about, as one does with the stomach-ache,
wapehayhan. pe-han'-ka-dan), n. a small slender bird which
frequents the water. Same as siyukansasa.
pe-han'-san, n. the large white crane. pe-Kni'-ga, v. n. to be red hot, heated to a while
heat. pe-Kni'-ġa, n. that which is heated to a red heat. pe-knik', cont. of pełniga. pe-Kni'-Kni-ġa, v. red. of pełniġa. pe-knik'-ya, v.a.
to heat red hot, -peliniliwaya. pe-ksu', n.
a kind of acorn. pe-ksu'dan, n. a species of acorn ; a kind of
grass with a red flower. pe-mni', adj. warped, twisted, crooked. pe-mni', v. n. to warp, twist; to become crooked,
become entangled. pe-mni'-mni, v. red. of pemni. pe-mni'-yan, adv. crookedly, perversely, twisting. pe-mnu'-mnu-ġa, n. the pit of the stomach.
See also pimnumnuga. pe-na'-kpa-kpa, v. n. to crackle, as a fire. pe-na'tpa-tpa, v. n. to crackle, emit sparks, as
fire. This and the preceding word may perhaps
be used as nouns, meaning small sparks. pe-pe', adj. red. of pe; prickly, jagged. pe-pe'-ya, adv. prickly, sharp, or rough, as &
frozen road : pepeya hiyeya. pe-sde'-te, n. the top of the head. pe-sde'-te-o-win-se, n. the curl of hair on the
top of the head. pe'-sto, adj. sharp-pointed. pe'-sto-dan, adj. sharp-pointed. pe'-sto-ya, adv. in a sharp-pointed manner. pe-ska', n. the air-bladder of a fish. This is
sometimes used for making glue, hence the name
conpeska. pe-śni'-ża, n. sparks of fire. pet, cont. of peta, as in petibkan, etc. pe'-ta, n. fire. pe-ta'-ġa, n. burning coals. pe-ta'-ga-i-ce-on-pa, v. to broil on the coals, –
petaġa ićewaonpa. pe-tan', adv. on the fire : petan ekipeya, to throw
on or in the fire. pe-tan'-na, adv. in the fire. pet-i'-skan, v. n. to draw near the fire, warm
oneself,--petimaskan. pet'-i-zan-zaŋ, and petaizanżaŋ, n. a torch,
candle, lamp. pet-i'-żan-zan-i-hu-pa, n. a candlestick, lamp. pet-i'-żan-żan-i-yu-kse, n. candle-snuffers. pet-ka'-hda, adv. near the fire, by the fire. pet-ki'-ye-dan, adv. near the fire. pe-tu'-spe, n.
a fire-brand. pe-tu'-ste, n. a fire-brand. pe-yo'-han, n. a line running over the middle of
the head from the forehead, the parting of the hair.
pe-yo'-zan, n. the place which is left on the
head by separating the hair. pe-zi', n. grass, herbs, hay. pe-zi-hu'-ta, n. grass-roots, herbs ; medicines of
all kinds. pe-zi-hu'-ta-i-ya-tke, 1. something to drink
medicine out of; tea-cups. pe-zi-hu'-ta-i-yo-ka-stan, n. something to
pour medicine into ; a coffee-pot, tea-pot; a sy
ringe. pe-zi-hu'-ta-sa-pa, n. black medicine, i. e. cof
fee. pe-zi-hu'ta-si-ca, n. bad medicine, i. e. poison. pe-zi-hu'-ta-wi-ca-sta, n. a medicine man; a
physician. pe-zi-hu'-ta-zi, n. yellow medicine ; rhubarb. Pe-zi-hu'ta-zi-ķa-pi-wa-kpa, n. the Yellow
Medicine river, which joins the Minnesota from the Coteau des Prairies, about thirty miles below
Mdeiyedan. pe-zi'-Ho-ta, n. a kind of grass or herb of a
whitish or greyish appearance, which grows abundantly on the prairies. In our translations this
word is used for hyssop. pe-zi'-i-ca-sda, n. (pezi and kaśda) a scythe. pe-zi'-ka-áda, v. to cut hay or grass, to mow,—
peziwakaśda. pi, the common plural termination of verbs, nouns,
pronouns, adjectives, and sometimes adverbs and
prepositions. pi, adj. good. This word is probably obsolete, but
words formed from it are in use, as yupi, etc. pi, n. the liver,-mapi, wićapi : tapi, the liver of
animals. pi'-ća, an auxiliary verb with the force of can.
It conveys the idea of power or possibility, as,
ećonpića, that can be done. pi-ća'-ka, an auxiliary verb, sometimes with the
force of pića, and sometimes with that of pića
śni. The 'ka'may in some cases be interrogative. pi-ća'-ka, adj. a little good, i. q. kitanna waste. pi-ća'-sni, v. it cannot be, it is impossible. pi-da', v. n. to be glad, thankful ; to rejoice,
piwada, piundapi. pi-da'da, v. red. of pida. pi-da'-ki-ya, v. a. to make glad, make thankful,
-pidawakiya, pidaunkiyapi : pidamakiya, he has
made me glad, I am thankful. pi-da'-ya, v. a. to make glad, -pidawaya, pida
unyanpi. pi-da'-ya, adv. gladly. pi-i'-ei-ya, v. reflex, of piya; to prepare oneself,
get ready,—pimiçiya, piunkiçiyapi. pi-ki'-ći da, v. to give thanks to, be glad for,
pi-ki'da, v. n. to be thankful, glad, -piwakida. pi-ki'-ya, v. a. to conjure, to powwow over the
sick, as the Dakotas do; to mend or make new
one's own,-piwakiya, piunkiyapi, pimakiya. pi-ki'-ya-pi, part. conjured, conjuring ; mended. pi-ksu'-dan, n. a kind of acorn. See peksudan. pi-mnu'-mnu-ġe, n. the pit of the stomach. pins-pin'-za, n. an animal about the size of a
mink, which is found near the Missouri, and is
said by the Dakotas to plant its own field. pins-pin'-za, v. red. of pinza; to squeal, as a
ground squirrel when caught. pins-pin'-ze-dan, adj. thin, scattering, as hair
or grass. pin'-za, v. n. to creak, as a shoe. pin'-ze-dan, n. an animal about the size of a
large ground squirrel, which is said to live on the prairie to the north-west, and to plant its own
field. pin'-ża, adj. destitute of hair, i. q. śmi. pi-pi'-ya, adv. red. of piya; well, anew, tho
roughly. pi-ska'-te, n. a small species of cranberry. S.
W. P. pi'-sko, n. the night-hawk. pi'-sko-ta-han-pe, n. the ladies-slipper, a flower;
mushrooms, fungus, i. q. wićanlipi hinkpaya. pi-śni'-że, n. the spleen. See tapiśnize. pis-pi'-ża, adj. red. of piza; wrinkled, -mapis
piza. pis-pi'-że-dan, adj. wrinkled or shrivelled, as
one's hands from being long in water, withered,
-mapiśpizedan. pi-ya', v. a. to make anew, mend up, repair,
piwaya, piunyanpi. pi'-ya, adv. well, anew : piya hduha, to have
again, recover one's own ; piya kaga, to mend,
make anew. pi'-ya-e-han-ke-ća, adv. taller, longer than. pi'-ya-e-han-na-ke-cin-han, adv. presently ;
i... ehakedanke cinhaŋ, soon, again. pi-ya'-ya, v. n. to run well, as a canoe or hutina
cute. pi-ye', v. See piya. pi-ye'-des, adv. notwithstanding ; heedlessly;
i.q. iyowinyeśni. Said of one who does not listen
to what is said to him. pi-ye'-pi-ća, adj. reparable : piyepića śni, that
cannot be repaired. pi-zi', n. the gall,—mapizi. See tapizi. pi'-ża, adj. wrinkled,-mapiza. po, the plural termination of verbs in the impera
tive mood. po, v. n.
to swell, puff out,-mapo, wilapo. po-gan', adv.
on the nose.
po'-ġan, v. n. to spread out, as a bladder when
blown. po-ġa'-ske, n.
the external part of the nose, the sides of the nostrils. po'-ġe, n. the nose, -mapoġe, nipoge. po'-ge-o-kdo-ka, n. the nostrils. po'-ha-ha-se, adv. shaking. Said of a buffalo
shaking his head; pohahase inyanka, he runs
shaking his head, po'-hdi-co-dan, adv. (pa and ohde) head covered ;
i.q. pośmićodaŋ : sina pohdićodan hiŋmi, I wear
my blanket over my head. po'-hmi-co-dan, adv. Same as pohdiéodan. pok-a'-ske, n. (poġe and aske) the outside of the
nostrils. pok-can'-te, n. the cartilage between the nostrils. pob-yu'-ski, n. the inside of the nose, the nos
trils. po-ki'-mna-mna, v. a. to shake the head at one,
-powakimnamna. po-kpan'-ka, n. See potpanka. pom, cont. of popa; pom iyaya and pom hinhda,
to burst out, snap suddenly. po'-mna-mna, v.
to shake the head,-powamnamna. po'-mna-mna-ki-ya, v. a. to shake or wag the
head at ; to cause to wag the head,-pomnamna
wakiya. pom-ya', adv. snapping, popping. pom-yer', adv. with a snap: pomyel iheya, to
shoot and kill immediately: pomyeli iyeya. pom-ye'-bin, adv. snapping. pon, cont. of pota. pon-pon', adj. rotten, as wood. pon-pon'-na, adj. rotten, soft, as rotten wood. po'-pa, v. n.
to burst. See napopa. po-po', v. n. red. of po; to swell, puff out. po-po'-pa, adj. full of pith : tipsinna popopa, a
stringy turnip. po-po'-pe-se, adv. Said of nap on a blanket and
of fine fur on a robe. po-po'tka-dan, n. the screech-owl. po'-ptan-ptan, v. n. to shake the head, signify
dissent,-powaptanptan. po'-ptan-ptan-ki-ya, v. a. to shake the head at,
-poptanptan wakiya. See apoptanptan. po'-ski-ca, v. to clasp around the neck. See
pośkin. po'-skin, cont. of poskića; by the neck. po'-skin-i-ya-ka-ska, v. a. to tie round the
neck, as a halter. po'-skin-kte, v. to kill by choking,
-poskinwakte. po'-skin-ta, v. to die by being strangled. po'-skin-yu-ța, v. to put to death by hanging.
to take by the throat; to put the arms around the neck of one, to embrace,
poskinmduza. po-śdi'-śdi, v. to have one's face always covered :
pośdiśdi waun. po-śdi'-śdi-ka, n. one who keeps his face covered
with his blanket. po'-sin, v. n. to sniff, snuf up the nose, -po
wasin. po'-sin-sin, v. red. of posin. po'-smi-co-dan, adv. head covered, as with a
blanket: sina pośmibodan hiņmi, I wear my blanket over my
head, po'-stan, n. a hood, a child's cloak with a hood. po'ta, adj. worn out. See yupota. po-ta'-han, part. worn out, full of holes, . po-ta'-wa-han, part. full of holes. po-tkan'-ka, n. cranberries. Same as potpanka. po-tpan'-ka, n. cranberries, the Oxycoccus ma
crocarpus. po-tpan'-ka-hu, n. the cranberry-stalk. po-tpo'-ta, red. of pota ; worn out. po-tpo'-ta-han, part, red. of potahan ; full of
holes, torn, ragged, as a worn out garment. po-wa'-ya, n. nap, fur. po-wa'-ya, adj. having nap. po-wa'-ye-dan, adj. having nap; sa powayedan,
red flannel. po'-żan-zan, v. to snuf' up, as an animal snuffs
the wind; to snuff or scent, as a dog does. psa, n. a kind of rush or water grass, sometimes
used in making mats: Psa-mde-wanke-cin-wakpa, the little stream that empties into the Min
nesota just below Little Rock. psa'-ka, adj. broken. See yupsaka. psa-ka'-han, part. broken, as a string; said also
of the heart. psa-ka'-wa-han, part. broken, as a string. psa'-o-win-ża, n. rush mats. psa-psa'-ka-han, part, red. of psakahan. psa-psa'-ka-wa-han, part. red. of psakawahan. psa'-wa-pa-ha, n. palm or chip hats.
Snow-shoes. pse'-Ktiŋ, n. the ash. pse-pa'-ton-na, n. sharp-toed snow-shoes. pse-ya'-pi, n. the water-ash, so called because
used for making snow-shoes. psi'-ća, adj. jumping. See yupsića. psin, cont. of psića: psin iyaya, to jump or hop
away. psin, n. rice, wild rice : psiŋ ati, to pitch a tent
at the rice ; psiŋ ska, white rice, barley. psin-ca', n. a bulbous esculent root which grows
in marshes, about the size of a black walnut with the hull on.
psin-ćin'-ća, n. a bulbous esculent root much
used by the Dakotas of the lower Minnesota. It is about as large as a hen's egg, and grows on
the margin of rivers and lakes. psin-ska', n. white rice ; barley. psi-psi'-ća, v. red. of psića ; to jump much,
to skip. psi-psi'-ca-dan, n. the grasshopper. psi-pšin', cont. of psipsića; psipsin ya, to go
jumping or skipping along. pso'-han, v. (pse and ohan) to put on or wear
snow-shoes,-psowahay, psounhan pi. pso-ka', n. a species of fish somewhat resembling
the pike. pso'-kšan, n. a kind of round-toed snow-shoes. pson-pson', adj. rounded off, having the corners
taken off pson-pson'-na, adj. rounded, having the corners
taken off ; said also of teeth on edge, as, hi pson
psonna. psun-psun'-na, adj. Same as psonpsonna. psa, v. n. to sneeze, -wapša, unpsapi. psa-pša', adv. pšapša se, huddled together ; pša
pša se iyaya, to make a noise, as when any thing
is poured into a vessel. See apsapša. psa-ya', v. a. to cause to sneeze, psawaya. psin, n. leeks, onions. psin-ca', n. the flying-squirrel. psun, adj. shed, fallen of, as horns; drawn out.
See yupśun, kapsuŋ. psun-han', part. fallen off, dislocated. psun-ka', adj. round, short and thick. pšun-ka', n. a bulge, a knot on a tree; a pill. psun-ka'-dan, n. any little round thing. psun-ka'-ka, n. little round things, pills. psun-ka'ya, adv. in a bunch, in a heap, as an
animal curled up; pšunkaya wanka. psun-ka'-ya-ken, adv. in a bunch, drawn up
together. psun-wa'-han, part. dropped out, fallen off pta. See yupta. pta-han', part. cut off, cut out. ptan. See yuptan. ptan, n. the otter. In the sacred dialect it is
called 'hepan.' ptan-ptan', adj. unsteady, rocking, as a canoe. ptan-ptan'-na, adj. unsteady, tottering. Ptan-sin'-ta, n. the name of the village at the
upper end of Lake Traverse. ptan'-yan, adv. flurried. See éanteptanyan. ptan-ye'-tu, n. autumn. To summer and win
ter the Dakotas count five months each, and to
spring and autumn but one each. pta-wa'-han, part. cut off, fallen off Same as
pta'-ya, adv. together, collectively: ptaya unyan
pi kta, we will go together. pte, n. a cow, the female butt'alo. The bison or
buffalo is colloquially termed ‘pte,' irrespective
of sex. The counterpart is 'tatanka. pte'-a-san-pi, n. cow's milk. pte'-a-san-pi-i-hdi, n. butter. pte'-a-san-pi-ni-ni, n. thick milk, curdled milk. pte'-a-san-pi-ta-sa-ka, n. cheese. pte'-ce-dan, adj. short,---maptećedan. pte'-ce-ye-dan, adv. for a short time. pte'-ġa, n. a marsh, a low place, a swampy place. pte-ġan'-ni-ca-dan, n. pte-go'-pe-ca, n. a kind of hawk, so called be
cause it frequents marshes. ptek-wi'ta, n. firm land surrounded by a
marsh, a swamp-island. pten-ye'-day, adv. for a short time. pte-pte'-ce-dan, adj. red. of ptecedan. pte'-ta-ma-ka, n.
a lean cow. pte'-ta-wo-te, n. a prairie plant which bears
juicy berries. pte-wa'-nun-yan-pi, n. tame cattle. See nun
yan, to tame. pte-zi'-ća-dan, n. (pte and cinéadan) a calf. ptin'-han, n. last autumn : ptinhaŋ ićima, the
fall before last. ptu-ha', v. n. to crumble down. ptu-Ka'-Ha, v. red. of ptuba. ptu-ptu'-ża, red. of ptuża. ptu-ptu'-za-han, part. red. of ptuzahan. ptu-ptu'-za-wa-han, part. red. of ptużawahan. ptu'-ża, adj. split, cracked. See yuptuża. ptu-za'-han, part. cracked of itself. ptu-za'-wa-han, part. cracked of itself. pu-kpa', adj. boiled up, not clear, mixed up, said
of water or soup which contains floating particles. pu-sa', adj. dry: pusa ehnaka, to lay aside to
dry or season. pu-skem', cont. of puskepa: puskem okastan, to
strain or filter,-puskem owakastan. pu-ske'-pa, v. a. to strain or filter,—wapuskepa. pus-ki'-ya, v. a. to dry or cause to dry, as wet
clothes or fruit,-puswakiya, pusunkiyapi : puski
cićiya, to dry for one,-puswećićiya. pu-spa', v. a. to stick on, glue ; to seal,-wapuspa. pu-spe'-ki-ya, v. a. to cause to glue or seal,
puspewakiya. pu-spe'-ya, v. a. to cause to seal or glue. pus-pu'-za, adj. red. of puza. pu-stag', cont. of pustaka; pustag iwanka, to
squat down ; pustag ekpeiçiya, to get down so as
to hide, bow down, squat down. pu-stag'-tu-ken, adv. squatting down. pu-sta'-ka, v. n. to squat down,wapustaka.
pus-ya', v. a. to dry, cause to dry,-puswaya,
pusunyaŋpi. pus-ya', adv. in a drying manner. pu-ski', adv. in a bunch, i. q. pšunkaya yanka. pu-ski'-ca, v. a. to press or rub out with the
hand, -wapuskića. pu-ski'-dan, adv. dim. of puśki. pu-skin', cont. of puśkića; puśkin yanka. pu-skin'-ya, adv. pressed, squeezed. pu-tag', cont. of putaka; putag ilipaya, to fall
down with the hands on the ground. pu-ta'-ka, v. a. to touch, as with the hand when
one falls-waputaka. pu-te', n. the upper lip ; the snout or nose of an
animal. Pu'-te-wa-ta, n. p. the Potowatomies. Pu'-te-wa-ta-dan, n. Same as Putewata. . pu-tin', n. See putinhan. pu-tin-hin, m. the beard, especially what grows
on the upper lip, the mustache. pu-tpa', adj. Same as pukpa. pu-tpe'-ya, adv. scattering, scattered over. pu'-za, adj. dry, thirsty; dry, as cloth, ground,
etc., not wet ; shallow, as a stream, run dry.
See puzeda, and ipuza. pu-zan', cont. of puzata; puzan iyaya : puzan
iyayeya, to run one ashore ; to show that one has
told a falsehood. pu-zan'-zan, red. of puzan; puzanzan iyekićići
yapi, and puzanzan iyayekićiyapi, they run each
other aground. pu-za'-ta, adv. on dry land. pu'-ze-day, adj. shallow, as a stream of water.
s'a, an auxiliary suffix to verbs, signifying frequency
of action, or a habit formed, as, wai s'a, wakage s'a. It frequently gives verbs the force of nouns of the agent; as, wamayon, to steal ; wamanon
s'a, a thief. s'a, v. n. to roar, as the waves : s'a wanka. Sag-da'-sin, n. the English, the name which the
Dakotas give to the British, the inhabitants of Red River, etc. This word is probably from some
other Indian language. sag-ye', n. something used in walking, a staff:
can sagye, a cane ; maza sagye, a sword. sag-ye'-ki-ton, v. to use a staff in walking, as
an old person,-sagyeweton. sag-ye'-ton, v. to use a staff,—sagyewaton. sag-ye'-ya, v. a. to use any thing for a staf, —
sagyewaya. sak, cont. of saka; sakowasiŋ yutapi, eaten raw. sa'-ka, adj. raw, uncooked; hard, dried ; as,
waćoni saka, dried meat. sa'-ka-dan, adj. green, limber. Hence, can
sakadan, a switch. sa'-ka-yu-ta-pi, n. what is eaten raw, i. e. me
lons, cucumbers. sa-kim', adv. both, two, both together. sa-kim'tu, adv. two together. sa-kim'-tu-ken, adv. both together. sak'-o-wa-sin, adv. entirely raw. sam, adv. cont. of saypa; more, beyond, more
than : sam iyaya, to go beyond, surpass ; sam
iyeya, to make go over or beyond. sam'-i-ye-ya, adv.
more than. sam-sam', adv. red. of sam. sam-san'-pa, adv. red. of sanpa. gam-ya', v. a. of sapa; to blacken, color black,
samwaya, samunyanpi. sam-ya', adv. beyond, further ; black, dark :
samya wanka, it lies darkly. sam-ya'-han, adv. dark, blackish, as water at a
distance. sam-ya'-ken, adj. blackish ; in sight, far off. san, adj. whitish or yellowish : maka saŋ, white
earth : hi san, to show the teeth. san-ksan'-ki-ton, v. n. to wear or put on a
skirt,-sanksan weton. san-ksan'-ni-ca, n. a Dakota woman's skirt. san-ksan'-ya, v. a. to use for a skirt, make a
skirt of, -saŋksan waya. san-ni', adj. of one side, on one side : nape sanni,
one hand ; si sanni, one foot. san-ni'-ca, adv. on one side. san-ni'-na, adv. of only one side. san-ni'-na-tan-han, adv. from only one side. san'-o-pa-pa, adj. grey hairs here and there in
one's head, turning grey.
P, the twentieth letter of the Dakota alphabet. It
has a click sound like that of ¢, ķ, and ţ. pe, n.
the elm; pe can, elm-wood; pe ikćeka, the common water-elm; pe itazipa (bow-elm) the
rock-elm; pe tutupa, slippery-elm. pe-i'-kće-ka, n. the common elm. pe-tu'-tu-pa, n. the slippery-elm. po, n. fog, mist. po, adj. foggy, misty. po'-po', adj. red. of po; foggy. po-sa', adj. foggy, not clear ; said when the air
is filled with particles of snow. po'-ze-ća, v. n. to be out of humor,-mapozeća.
8, the twenty-first letter of the Dakota alphabet,
having the soft sound of the English c. When marked thus (s”), the sound is prolonged.