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sin-ta', n. the tamarack or hackmatack, the

American larch. This is probably so called because the gum is hard, i. e. sin tasaka. The original name seems to have been 'makan.'

S. W. P. sin-ta'-ka, n. the striped bass. sin-tka'-hu, n. the hip-bone, the os ilium. sin-tpan'-ka, n. a root that grows, it is said, in

low ground : sintpankahu, the stalk and root

above referred to. sin-sin', adj. wrinkled. sin-yan'-ta-ka-dan, n. the name of a small

bird which frequents the rice lakes. si-pa'. See kasipa, yusipa. si-pa'-han, part. broken off close, as the limbs of

a tree, the teeth of a comb, pins, etc. si-pa'-wa-han, part. Same as sipahan. si-pto', n. beads. śi-pto'-pto, n. beads. si-so'-ka, n. the robin. si-tki'-hda, v. n. to be angry; to be afflicted ;

šitkihda waun. si-tki'-hda-ya, v. to make angry; to afflict, to

punish,--sitkihdawaya. si-tki'-hda-ya, adv. in trouble, angrily, vered :

sitkihdaya waun). śi-ya'-ka, n. the teal, a kind of duck. The siya

ka are divided into siyaka tanka, mde siyaka, and

wakpa siyaka. ši-ya'-ka, n. a boil : siyaka o, hit by the siyaka,

which results in a boil, --siyaka mao. We have not been able to ascertain the origin of this ex

pression. ši'-yo, n.

the grouse or prairie hen, the Tetrao cupido. si-yo'to, n. the knees, the front part of the legs ;

the lap,-masiyoto. ska. See yuśka. ska-han', part, come untied of itself. skan, cont. of śkata ; śkan unpi. skan-ki'-ya, v. to cause to play,-śkanwakiya. skan, v. n. to do, to act; to move about : token

yaśkay he, what art thou doing?-waskan, unskanpi : śkan hinhda, to jump or flutter about, as

a bird when caught. skan-ki'-ya, v. a. to cause to move about,—śkan

wakiya. skan-skan', v. red. of skan; to stir, move about,

change place. skan-skan'-yan, v. a. to cause to move about,

skanskaŋwaya. skan-skan'-yan, adv. moving, in motion. śkan-yan', adv. moving. ska'ta, v. n. to play,—waśkata, unákatapi. ska-wa'-han, part. come untied of itself.

śke-ca', n. the fisher. śke-ca'-tan-ka, n. the wolverine. ske-du'-ta, n. the name of a small red bird. ske-han', adj. wild, prancing, as a horse; ambi

tious. ske-han'-han, adj. red. of skehan; jumping

round, frolicsome. śke-he', adj. Same as skehan. śke-he'-ca, n. an animal that is wild or un

steady. śke-he'-śni, adj. gentle. ske-he'-ya, v. a.

to make wild, make prance about,--skehewaya. ske-he'-ya, adv. ambitiously. śki-ca'. See yuskića. ski-ca'-han, part. squeezing, pressed. śki-ca'-wa-han, part. pressing, squeezed. skin-éi' ya, v. to move oneself, be industrious ;

i. q. miniheiệiya,—śkinmićiya. ski-ska', adj. rough, not smooth and level. ski-ske'-ya, v. a. to make rough, --śkiśkewaya. . ski-ske' ya, adv. roughly. sko-kpa', adj. hollowed out, concave. skom, cont. of skopa; škom iyaya. śkom-ya', v. a.

to make crooked,-skomwaya. śkom-ya', adv. crookedly; skomya wanka. śko'-pa, adj. crooked, warped ; concave. sko-sko'-pa, adj. red. of skopa. śko-tpa', adj. hollowed out, concave. sku, v. n. to be wholly or partially roasted ; to be

covered with red spots, as one who lies too close

to the fire in cold weather,-masku, nisku. sku-mna', adj. tainted, as meat; sour. śma, adj. deep, as water; dense, as foliage; thickly

set, as hair. śma-śma', adj. red. of śma. śmi, adj. bare ; i. q. hiŋ wanića: pa smi; said

of a head with only a few scattering hairs. śna. See yuśna. śna-han', part. dropped, missed. śna-wa'-han, part. dropped. śni, adv. of negation; not, no. It follows verbs,

nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, etc. śni-sni'-ża, adj. red. of śniza. śnis-ya', v. a. to make wither or dry up,-énis

waya, śniśunyanpi. Śnis-ya', adv. withered. śni-yan'-yan, adv. abundantly. śni'-za, adj. withered, dead, dried up, as leaves

by the sun, withered; blurred, indistinct : isto

masniža. śnun-śnun'-ża, adj. red. of śnuyża. śnun'-ża, adj. blurred, indistinct, as, istośnunza. sog, cont. of soka. sog-sog'-ya, adv. red. of sogya.

sog-ya', adv. strongly, firmly, thickly: sogya

awaćin, to think intently. sog-yeh', adv. strongly, firmly ; greatly, much. so'-ka, adj. thick, applied to solids. so-ksan'-ka-dan, n. a species of duck, much

smaller than the mallard duck, the teal. so-ksan'-ka-tan-ka, n. a large species of the

teal. so-kso'-ka, adj. red, of soka. son-na'-gi, n. (smoke-ghost) soot. son-ya', v. a. to smoke, make smoky,--sonwaya. song-żo'-ya-ka, n. See sunżoyaka for the better

orthography of this word. son-ġi'-dan, n. See suņģidan. son'-ka, n. See sunka. son-pa', n. See sunpa. son'-son-na, adj. long-eared, hanging down, as

the ears of many dogs do; dogs whose ears hang

down. Hence, śuktanka sonsonna, a mule. son-te', n. the hole by which a beaver goes in and

out. so'-sa, adj. turbid, muddy, as water. so'-se, adj. Same as sośa : Minibose, the Missouri

river. so-se'-ya, v. a. to make turbid or muddy, to stir

up,—sosewaya. so-se'-ya, adv. turbidly. so-ska', n.

a species of pine ; a small kind of fish; i. q. hośka. so'-ta, n. smoke. so'-ta, v. n.

to smoke, as a fire. so-tka'-zi, n. soot. so-tka'-zi, adj. smoked black, sooty. šot-o'-zu, adj. smoky, full of smoke, applied to

a hazy atmosphere. spa. See yuspa. śpa-han', part. broken off.

. span, adj. cooked, as food; burnt or frozen, as

the face or parts of the body by heat or cold : noge maspan), my ears are frozen; siha niấpan,

thy feet are frozen. špan-ki'-ci-ći-ya, v. a. to cook for one,—span

wećićiya. span-ki'-ya, v. a. pos. to cook one's own food;

to cook for another,--spaŋwakiya, španunki

yapi. . span-yan', v. a. to cook, as food,-span waya,

spayunyanpi. spa-wa'-han, part. broken off. śpe. See spa. śpi. See yuśpi. śpi-han', part. fallen off, as berries. śpi-wa'-han, part. Same as śpihan. śpu. See yuspu. śpu-han', part. See śpuwahan. .

śpu-wa'-hay, part. fallen off of itself, as any

thing that adhered. śta, conj. although. See eśta. śtag, cont. of staka. śtag-ya', v.a. to mash up; to make preserves,

stagwaya. śtag-ya', adv. free from ice : stagya wanka. sta'-ka, adj. free from ice, as a river or lake when

the ice has broken up and run out : beaten, broken.

See kaśtaka. stan. See kastan, yuśtan. śtan, adj. blackish, dark-colored. stan, v. n. to become black, as berries by the heat

of the sun. śtan'-hay, conj. although : hi stanhan sdonwaye

śni, though he may have come I do not know it. śtan-han', v. n. to ooze out, as water from a sore,

to be sore and exude water. śta-śta', adj. weak, brittle, i. q. wankadan. śta-śta'-dan, adj. brittle. śta-śta'-ka, adj. red. of staka. śte, adj. deformed. See osteka. śte-da', v. to think there is much or many, to rate

high-stewada, steundapi. ste-da'-pi, n.

a great many, much. šte-i'-și-da, v. reflex. to think much of oneself. śte-ya', adv. deformedly. stu-ća', v. n. to thaw, as any thing that has been

frozen. See stunya. stun-ya', v. a. to thaw, cause to thaw,—śtun

waya : stunićiya, to thaw or warm oneself,

stunmiçiya. štu-śta', adj. soft, as the flesh of an animal when

hard chased, wanting flavor. stu-ste'-ya, v. a.

to chase so as to make weary and render the meat flavorless,-stustewaya. stu'-ta, adv. thawed, warmed : nape mastuta, my

hands are warmed. suk-cin'-ca, n. a young wolf. See sunkcinéa. suk-cin'-ca-dan, n. a colt. See sunkéinéadan. suk-tan'-ka, n. (sunka and tanka) the horse,

horses. śuk-tan'-ka-a-kin, n. a saddle for a horse ; a

pack-saddle. suk-tan'-ka-i-i-yu-wi, n. a horse-bridle, a rope

for a horse's mouth. suk-tan'-ka-son-son-na, n. a mule, a jackass. suk-tan'-ka-wa-na-pin, n. a horse-collar. sun, n. the large feathers of birds' wings. sung, cont. of sunka. sung-a'-ħin, n. a saddle. sung-hu'-dan, n. a short-legged horse, a pony,

a small horse. sung-hu'-pte-pte-ce-dan, n. a short-legged

dog or horse.


a colt.

sung-i'-ca-psin-te, n. a horsewhip. śung-mdo'-ka, n. the male of the horse or dog. sung-wa'-ķin-i-hu-pa, n. the apparatus for

packing on a horse or dog, pronounced often sungwaķunhupa and śungwaķinhupa. It is made by placing the ends of two or more poles (usually tent-poles) together, and inclining them at an angle of some forty or fifty degrees. The ends fastened together are placed on the back of the horse or dog, with a strap around the breast. Behind the horse's tail cross-pieces are tied, on which loads are packed and children placed. The Sisitonways and Ihanktonwans of the prairie keep

large dogs for the purpose of packing. sung-wi'ye, n.

a mare ; a bitch. sung-wi'-ye-dan, n. dim. of sungwiye. sun-gi'-dan, n. the fox. sun-Hpa'-dan, n. a puppy, a little dog. sun'-ka, n. a dog, commonly; a horse ; an ox

or cow, occasionally. This latter use obtains only in the language of the braves or warriors of

the nation,-mitasunke, nitasunke, taśunke. sun'-ka-wa-kan, n. a sacred dog or spirit-dog,

i. e. a horse. sunk-ein'-ca, n. a young wolf. sunk-ćin'-ca-dan, n. sunk-i'-ca-psin-te, n. a horsewhip. sunk-pa'-dan, n. See sunli padan. sunk-tan'-ka, n. (sunka and tanka). See suk

tanka. sunk-ta'-wa-na-pin-na, n. the name of a small

bird. sunk-to'-ke-ća, n. the other dog, i. e. the wolf. sunk-wi'-ye, n. a mare. sun-pa', v. n. to moult, shed, as geese their

feathers. sun-pa'-kdi-bdi, v. to have the feathers partly

grown. Said of geese, etc., when their feathers have grown so that they are almost able to fly ;

i. q. ećadan kihipi kta. sun-zo'-yag, cont. of śunzoyaka; sunżoyag iću,

to make a loop, noose, or lasso; suņżoyag iyakaśka,

to tie a noose or running knot. sun-zo'-ya-ka, n. a noose. šu-pe', n. guts, intestines. su-pe'-co-wo-żu, n. a species of duck, so called

because its entrails are always full. sup-tan'-ka, n. the large intestines. su-ska', adj. slow, tardy, good for nothing, worth

less,-masuśka, nisuśka. su-ska'-ka, n. a worthless fellow. su-ta', v. to miss, fail of, to be unable to obtain,

—śuwata, suuntapi. śu-te'-ya, v. to cause to fail or miss,


t, the twenty-third letter of the Dakota alphabet. ta, n. the moose. This may properly be considered

as the generic term for all ruminating animals, since it enters into the composition of the names of most of them; as, takinća, deer ; tatanka,

buffalo, etc. ta, a prefix to such nouns as signify the various

members of the body, limiting them to the corresponding parts in ruminating animals; as, ćeži, the tongue, tačeći, a buffalo tongue ; pa, the

head, tapa, a deer's head. ta, prep. in comp. at, to, on; suffixed to nouns it

gives them the force of adverbs; as, maka, the earth ; makata, on the ground. See also “ata'

and ‘yata. ta, pron. in comp. his, hers, its ; with 'pi' at the

end of the noun, theirs. ta, adj. one of, a pair : tawanżidan, one pair ;

tanonpa, two pairs. ta-ce'-sdi, n. the dung of ruminating animals,

especially the buffalo; the Bois de vache ” of

the French. ta-ce'-zi, n. the tongue of ruminating animals,

especially the buffalo. ta-cin'-ca, n. the young of deer, a fawn. ta-cin'-ca-dan, n.

a fawn, a lamb. ta-cin'-ća-ha, n. a fawn-skin, calf-skin. ta-do', n. fresh meat, the fresh meat of ruminat

ing animals, as the deer and buffalo. ta-do'-hde-ska, n. the esophagus of the buffalo. ta-do'-ta-hu, n. the windpipe of animals. ta'-ġa, n. mini taga, froth, foam. ta-ġe', n. froth, foam, spittle, scum : taġe ekipeya,

to skim, throw off the scum. ta-ġi'-ća, n. a species of tortoise. ta-gi'-ća-ha, n. a buffalo robe ; chiefly used by

the Sisitonwans and Ihanktonways; i. q. ptehasina. Why a buffalo robe should be called tagicaha we have been unable to ascertain, except perhaps in contrast with the shell of the tortoise, may

be from some fancied resemblance in shape. ta-ġo'-sa, v. n. to spit, expectorate, -taġowasa,

tagounsapi. ta-gu', n. an old buffalo bull, a poor scabby bull,

whether old or not, a singed bull. ta-ha', n.

a deer-skin. ta-ha'-ba-Kdo-ke, n. the slits cut in a hide by

which it is stretched. ta-han', n. a man's brother-in-law, a wife's

brother, and a man's sister's husband ; my

brother-in-law : ditahan, thy brother-in-law. ta-han'-ki-bi-ya-yi, n. brothers-in-law.

or it


ta-han'-ku, n. his brother-in-law. ta-han'-si, n. a man's male cousin, my cousin.

This does not include a father's brother's sons,

who are brothers,-nitahansi. ta-han'-si-tku, n. his male cousin. ta-han'-si-ya, v. a. to sustain the relation of

male cousin to one ---tahansiwaya. ta-han'-ya, v. a. to have for brother-in-law, sus

tain the relation of tahan to one,-tahanwaya. ta-ha'-sa-ka, n. dried skin, parchment. ta'-hdo-hu, n. the soft maple, Acer rubrum. ta-he'-ca-psun-wi, n. the moon in which the

deer shed their horns ; December. ta-he'-day, adv. on this side of ta-he'-dan-tan-han, adv. on this side of. ta-he'-na, adv. (Ihaŋk.) on this side, i. 9.

itato. ta-he'-na-tan-han, adv. from this side of. ta-he'-pi, adv. by the way, on the road, between

one place and another. ta-he'-pi-ya, adv. between places, in the space

between the earth and heaven. ta-hin', n. buffalo or deer's hair. ta-hin'-i-pa-stan, n. an instrument for scraping

or currying skins. ta-hin'-spa, n.

an awl, awls. ta-hin'-spa-ci-ķa-dan, n. a needle, needles. ta-hin'ye-te, n. the shoulder of animals. ta-hin'-yo-ki-be, n. the joints of animals. ta-ho'-co-ka, n. a court or open place.

See hoćoka. ta-ho'-ka-ta, n.

a spider's web. ta-ho'-ka-tan, v. (taha and okatan) to stretch

out, as a hide, with pins,—tahowakatan. ta-hu', n. the back of the neck. ta-hu'-ka, n. the hide of a buffalo, a green hide. ta-hu'-to-stan, n. the nape, the prominent arti

culation of the neck behind. ta-Kan'-hin-hda, v. n. of tage; to froth or foam,

as when any thing is thrown into water. ta'-Kća, n. cont. of takinća. ta'-Kin-ća, n. the common deer, Cervus capreolus. ta'-Lin-ca-ha, n. a deer-skin. See taha. ta'-kin-ca-ska, n. white deer, i. e. sheep. ta'-Kin-ca-wa-nun-yan-pi, n. tame deer, i. e.

sheep. ta'-Kin-wa-nun-yan-pi, n. sheep. ta-lipa', n. the lower part of the neck and breast

of animals; the part between the shoulders of a

ta-Ku'-wa-pa-Bpe, n. the flesh that sticks to a

hide. ta'-ka, v. a. to roast off the hull, as of rice,-wa

táka, untákapi. ta-kan', n. the sinew taken from the back of the

deer and buffalo, which is used by the Dakotas

for thread, making bows, etc. ta-kan'-ġi, n. the knee-pan, the patella. ta-kan'-he-ća, n. raspberries. ta-kan'-he-ca-hu, n. raspberry bushes. ta-kan'-i-ta-zi-pe, n. a bow the back of which is

overlaid with sinew. ta-ka'-po-pa-pi, n. playing ball by striking. ta-ka'-psi-ca, v. to play ball by taking up the

ball in the club and throwing it, -tawakapsića. ta-ka'-psi-ca-pi, n. ball-playing. ta-ki'-ca-po-pe, n. a ball-club for striking. ta-ki'-ca-psi-ca, n. a ball-club, a stick with a

hoop at the end, interlaced so as to hold and carry

the ball in readiness to be thrown. tak-i'-Han, v. (taku and ihan): takihan yahi he,

what have you come to do? ta-kin', v. n. to lean : takin iyaya, to dodge. ta-kin'-yan, adv. leaning, not perpendicular:

wi takinyan ya, said of the sun when it is half

way up to the meridian. ta-ki'-yu-ha-wi, n. the moon when the deer

copulate; November. ta-ko'-da, n. Used with the pronouns ; as, mita

koda, my friend ; nitakoda, thy friend ; tako

daku, his friend. See koda. ta-ko'-da-ki-6i-ya-pi, n. particular friends. ta-ko'-da-ku, n. his particular friend. ta-ko'-da-ya, v. a. to have one for a particular

friend, -takodawaya. ta-ko'-mni, adv. nevertheless, still, always, at

any time, ever : with śni following, at no time. ta-kos', n. a son-in-law or daughter-in-law, my

son-in-law, etc. ; nephews and nieces by marriage. ta-kos'-ku, n. his or her son-in-law or daughter

in-law. ta-kos'-ya, v. a. to have for son-in-law or daugh

ter-in-law,—takośwaya. ta-ko'-ża, n. a grandchild, my grandchild,-mi

takoža, nitakoža. ta-ko'-za-kpa-ku, n. his or her grandchild.

Takozakpa is not used alone. ta-ko'-za-tpa-ku, n. his or her grandchild. ta-ko'-za-ya, v. a. to have for grandchild,—ta

kožawaya, takožauŋyanpi. ta-kpe', v. a. to come upon, attack ; sometimes

used in a good sense, to visit,- tawakpe, taunkpepi : takpe hi, to come to allack ; takpe i, to have been to attack ; takpe ya, to go to attack; takpe u, to be coming to attack.


ta-hpi'-yo-giŋ, n. ground-cherries. ta-Hipi'-yo-gin, adj. ripe, fully ripe : i. q. suton ;

talipiyoġin śni, not ripe. tak-ton', v. of taġe; to have scum. ta-hu'-ha, n. the scrapings of hides or skins. ta-lu'-śda-ha, n.

a summer robe.

ta-kpe'-ya, adv. attacking. ta'-ku, n. something. ta'-ku, interrog. pron. what? taku yaćin he, what

dost thou want ? ta-ku', n. a relative, kindred. See takuya. ta'-ku-ća, pron. interrog. what? ta'-ku-dan, n. din. of táku; a trifle, nothing,

mostly followed by śni, as, takudan waćin śni, I

want nothing. ta'-ku-da-śni, v. a. to count as nothing, not to

regard; to be patient, submissive in suffering,

takuwadaśni. ta-ku'-ki-ci-ya-pi, n. relatives, relationship. ta'-ku-ku, of táku; small articles, trinkets. ta'-ku-ma-ni-ni-na, n. moths and other small

grubs. ta-ku'-mna, v. n. to have taste or smell; taku

mna śni, to be without smell, taste, or aroma ; un

palatable. ta'-ku-ni-śni, v. n. to come to nothing, fail,

perish,-matakuniśni. ta'-ku-ni-sni-yan, adv. gone to nothing, perish

ing. ta'-ku-sa-sa, n. bed-bugs ; any red thing. Ta'-ku-skan-skan, n. one of the Dakota gods,

the moving god or god of motion. ta'-ku-śni, n. nothing. ta'-ku-sni-sni, n. small articles. ta-ku'-ya, v. a. to have one for a relation,--ta

kuwaya, takuunyanpi, takumayan, takućiya. ta-ku'-ye, n. a relative,-mitakuye, unkitaku

yepi. ta'-ma-he, n. the pike, a kind of fish. ta'-ma-he-ća, adj. poor, lean, not fat,-matama

heća, untamahecapi. ta'-ma-hen, adv. See taŋmahen. ta'-ma-hen-he-ća, adj. red. of tamaheća. ta'-ma-hen-ya, adv. poorly, not in a fat state. ta'-ma-ka, adj. poor, lean : pte tamaka, a lean

ta-na'-kpan, n. the fleshy part on the leg below

the knee of an animal. ta-na'-su-dan, n. the brain of animals. ta-na'-tpa-he-ća, n. Same as tanakpaheća. ta-na'tpa-hu-te, n. Same as tanakpaheća. ta-na'-wi-ti-ce, n. the little bulbous piece of

meat on the fore-leg. ta-ni', adj. old. See tanni. ta-ni'-ge, n. the paunch of a buffalo, etc. ta-ni'-han, adv. long ago. See taynihan. ta-nik'-yu-sku, v. to empty the paunch of a

buffalo, etc. ta-ni'-ka, adj. old. See tannika. ta-ni'-ya, n. his or her breath or life. See wo

niya. tan, cont. of tanćay; as, tanton. tan, cont. of tanka; as, minitan. tan. See yutan. tan, prep. or adv. su ffixed ; as in hećiyatan. tan, n. the side of an animal, the meat taken off

the ribs : tan wanżiday, one piece of meat. tan-a'-ta-ye-dan, adv. individually, directly,

in person : tanatayedan hdaźuzu, to pay each

one for himself. tan-can', n. the body,-mitanćan, untanćanpi :

the body or principal part of any thing, as of a

tree, etc. tan-can'-ka, n. the chief, the principal. tan-can'-ki-ya, v. a. to make great ; to prefer,

consider chief,—tanćanwakiya. tan-ćan'-ton, v. to have a body; to be ripe, full

grown. tan-co'-co-dan, adj. red. of tayćoday. tan-col-dan, adj. naked, nearly naked, poorly

clad ; tan coda, waun. tan-co'-ka, adj. See taŋcokadan. tan-co'-ka-dan, adj. naked, without clothing,

tanćomakadan, tan counkapidan. tan-da', v. a. to love, honor, respect; to be pa

tient,—tanwada, tanundapi. tan-da'-ka, v. a. Same as tanda. tan-han', prep. from; as, hećiya tanhan. tan-hda'-kin-yan, adv. crosswise, across some

thing else. tan-hdu'-s'a-s'a-se-ca, v. to be frightened, as at

a ghost, frightened at any thing; to be made sick

by seeing any thing,—tanmahdus'as’a seća. tan-hdu'-s'a-s'a-ya, adv. in a state of fright. tan-in', v. n. to appear, be manifest, be visible,

matayin. tan-in'-in, v. n. red. of tayin ; to appear occasion

ally, as one passing under a hill, or as the sun

through clouds. tan-in'-in-yan, adv. red. of taninyan; appearing

occasionally : tanininyan iyaya.


ta-mda', n. See tanmda. ta'-mdo-hu, n. the shoulder-blade of animals. ta-mdo'-ka, n. the male of the common deer, a

buck. tam-ki'-ya, v. a. to say much to one about any

thing, to blame, talk roughly to,-tamwakiya,

tamu kiyapi, tammakiya. ta-mni', n. the womb. ta-mun'-ka, v. 1st pers. sing. of tawanka. tam-ya', v. n. to talk earnestly, vociferate ; to

complain, murmur, blame one,-tamwamda, tam

yada, tamunyaŋpi. ta-na'-ġi-dan, n. a species of humming-bird. ta-na'-kpa-he-ca, n. a species of flag with a

large root growing in water.

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