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će'-pa, adj. fat,-maćepa, nićepa, unćepapi. će-pće'-pa, adj. red. of ćepa. See also ćeméepa. će-sdi', n. the dung of man or animals. će-sdi', v. n.

to dung,—ćewasdi, ćeyasdi. će-sdi'-o-sa-ka, v. n. to be foul, as a gun or

pipe-stem. ćeś, conj. although. Same as keś. će-śka', n.

the part of the breast near the collarbone. će-ski'-sa-te, n.

the collar-bone, clavicle. će-sko-hdo-ka, n. the hollow place in the throat

by the collar-bone. će-śpu', n. a wart, a scab : hoćešpu, fish-scales. će-tan', n. the chicken-hawk, the pigeon-hawk. će-te', n.

the bottom of a vessel. će-te'-ta, adv. at the bottom ; in the centre of a

lodge, near the fire. će-te'-ta-he-dan, n. a standing on the bottom;

a saucer.

co-hnag'-ki-ton), v. to put on or wear a breech

cloth. ée-hna'-ke, n. a breech-cloth, a piece of cloth

worn around the loins by Dakota men. će-hna'-ke-ki-ton, v. to put on and wear a

breech-cloth -ehnakewakiton. će-hu'-pa, n.

the under jaw. će-hu'-pa-hda-hda, v. n. to chatter, as the teeth

on account of cold, -behupawahdahda. ćen, cont. of ćeġa; čeh sapa, a black kettle ; ćel

ska, a white kettle. ceb and ećeh, adv. times : nonpa ćeh nonpa,

twice two. ćeh-in' and ećebin, adv. just so much, that alone :

he ćelin mduha, I have that alone. ceh-na'-ġi, n. (éeġa and nagi) 800t. ceh-o'-ki-hde-ton, n. a kettle, such as a tea

kettle. će-hpi', n. flesh, muscular fibre, -mielipi. ceh-po', n. the steam of a kettle. cek-un', v. See ćeħunka. cek-un'-ka, v. n. to be the object of anger, -eh

waunka. će'-ka, v. n.

to stagger,-maćeka. će-kćeg, cont, of cekeeka. će-kćeg'-ya, adv. staggeringly, reeling : ce

kćegya mani. će-kće'-ka, v. n.

to stagger, reel. će-ki'-ca-ti, v. of ĉeti; to make a fire for one,

ćewećati, ćeyećati. ce-ki-ei-ti, v. of beti; to make a fire for one,

cewećiti, ćeyećiti, ćeunkićitipi. će'-ki-ci-ya, v. of ćekiya; to pray or supplicate for another,-ewećiya, ćeyećiya, ćeuŋkićiyapi ;

cemiyećiya, thou prayest for me. će-ki'-ti-pi, n. a feast, of which virgins and men

who have not known women are said to partake ;

i. q. wimna śni. će'-ki-ya, v. of ćeya; to pray to, beseech, entreat,

-cewakiya, ćeyakiya, ćeunkiyapi, ćećićiya ;

éeuynićiyapi, we pray you. će-kpa', n. the navel ; a twin : cekpapi, twins,

maćekpa. ćem, cont. of ćepa. ćem-ce'-pa, adj. red. of ćepa; fat. ćem-ki'-ya, v. a. pos. of ćemya; to fatten one's

own,-cemwakiya, bemunkiyapi. ćem-ya', v. a. to make fat, fatten,—ćemwaya. ćem-ya', adv. fatly; liberally. ćem-ya'-pi, part. fatted. ćen, adv. about, nearly: wikéemna ćen, about

ten. će-om', cont. of ćeonpa. ce-on'-pa, v. a.

to roast, as corn on the cob, or as potatoes in the ashes,—ćewaonpa. See ćeunpa.

će-ti', v. a. to build a fire, make a fire,—ćewati,

éeyati, ceuntipi. će-to'-we-dan, adv. less than half full, having

a little in. će-to'-we-ta, adv. having a little in, as a vessel. će'-tu, adv. then, so much, just so. će-tun'-hda, v. a. to doubt, disbelieve,-ćetunwa

hda, ćeţunyahda, ćetuŋunhdapi, ćeţunéihda. će-tun'-hda-ya, v. a. to cause to doubt,—ćetun

hdawaya. će-um', cont. of ćeunpa. će-un'-pa, v. u. to roast, as corn by the fire, or as

potatoes in the ashes,—ćewauppa. će'-ya, v. a. to cry, to weep,—waćeya, yaćeya,

uyéeyapi; wićaćeya, weeping. From this word

comes ćekiya, to cry to, pray, će-ya'-ka, n. a dam, any thing that stops the

water. Inyan ćeyaka, the Little Rapids. će-ya'-ka-ka-ga-pi, n. a mill-dam. ée-ya'-ka-ta, n. mint, the generic name of

mints. ce'-ya-o-ki-ta-ta, v. to sob. će'-ye-kta-kta, v. to cry sobbingly,-waćeye

ktakta. će-zi', n. the tongue,-mićeži : beži nonpa, double

tongued ; ćeži żata, forked-tongued. će-zin', n. See će and zin. ći, a double pronoun in composition, including the

nom. I and the obj. thee, ći, prep. in comp. for, with, in. This is used after

e or i in the place of ki, as the first ći in amiciéita,

from akita. ći, interrog. particle. This is always used at the end

of a sentence, and has the force of demanding an immediate answer; as, yahikta, ći, you will come, will you?

a saw.

ćo, n.

ci-ća', a. rough, frizzled, curled up. ci-ća', v. of ka; I mean thee. ci-hin'-tku, n. his or her son. See ćinhintku. ci'-kći-ķa-dan, adj. red. of liķadan; pl. cikćiķa

pidan. éi-kći'-stin-na, adj. red. of cistiyna; pl. cikei

stinpidan. ći'-ka-dan, adj. little, very small ; pl. ciķapiday,

-maćikadan. éi'-ķa-ye-day, adv. small, pent up in a small

place. éi-kon', adv. of time. It is used after verbs and

sometimes adjectives, and marks past time, as epe éiķoy, I said. Where the verb or adjective immediately preceding changes a or an into e, cikon

is used instead of ķon. éin, adv. cont. of linka; miye cin, I alone. čin, def. art. the. It is used in the place of kin,

when the verb or adjective preceding has changed

a or an into e. ćin, v. a. to desire, want,—waćin, yaéin, un

cinpi. ćin'-a-han, conj. if. Same as ćinhan. éin'-ba-kse, n.

See canibakse. cin-ca', n. a child ; the young of animals, a

whelp, cub, calf, foal,—mićinéa, nićin ća, unkióincapi; tuwe cinéa tanin śni, whose child is not

manifest, i. e. a bastard. cin-ca'-ka-ġa, v. to beget a child, -éincawa

kaga. cin-ca'-ki-ei-ton, v. to bear a child to or for one,

--éincaweciton, cinéamiéiton. cin-ca'-ton, v. a. to have or give birth to a child,

-éinéawaton, cinéayaton, cinéauntonpi. cin-ca'-ya, v. to have for a child, adopt as a

child,--éinéawaya, cinéamayan). ćin'-ću, n. his elder brother. See einye. cin-cun'-kpa, adj. with child, pregnant; i. q.

ihdusaka. ćin-cun'-tpa, adj. Same as cinéunkpa. cin-han', conj. if, when. Same as kinhan). éin-hin'-tku, n. his or her son. éin'-ka, adv. voluntarily: miye cinka, I myself,

without the suggestion or command of any one. ćin'-ka, v. a. to want, desire.

Same as ćin,waćinka. éin'-ka-han, adv. voluntarily : iye linkahan. cin-ki'-ya, v. a. to cause to desire, persuade,

cin wakiya, éiņunkiyapi. ćin'-kpa, n. (éan and inkpa) buds; a twig; the

top of a tree, end of a stick. éin'-kpa-ta, adv. at the buds. cin-ksi', n. a son; sometimes used for a child,

whether male or female: miéinksi, my son ; unkićinksipi, our son or our sons.

éin-kši'-tku, n. his or her son. cin-kśi'-ya, v. to have for a son, be a father to

one, -éinkbiwaya. ćins, n.

son, my son ; used only when an address is made to the person. éin'-tpa, v. Same as cinkpa. éin'-tpa-ta, adv. Same as cinkpata. cin-ya', v. a. to cause to desire, persuade,--éin

waya. čin'-yan, adv. kitanna ćinyan taninyan yanka,

it is but just in sight. See kitan. cin-ye', n. a man's elder brother, my elder bro

ther. Male cousins by the father's side older than

oneself are also called ćinye. cin-ye'-ku, n. his elder brother. Saine as cincu. ćin-ye'-ya, v. to have for an elder brother,-cin

yewaya. éin'-yu-mni, n. an auger ; a gimblet. See

ćaniyumni. cis-cis'-tin-na, adj. red. Same as likeistinna. éi'-stin, adj. small, little. ci'-stin-na, adj. small, little,-maćistinna, unći

stiņpidan. éi'-sti-ye-dan, adj. narrow, pent up, as a way. ći'-sti-ye-dan, adv. for a little while. co, v.

to call, invite. See kićo.

the kernel or of meat grain, seeds, etc. ćo, intj. bang! Said of the report of a gun. co. See yućo and ayuco. co-co', adj. soft, as mud, opposed to ținza and

suta; not well cooked, i. q. span śni. co-co'-daŋ, adj. soft. co-co'-ya, adv. cocoya span, not well cooked. co'-dan, adj. destitute, without, not having, as

tawiću coday, without a wife ; bare, naked, as sićodan, bare-footed, tanéoday, naked. See ooka

day for the pronoun's place. co'-ga, adj. not neat, slovenly. See cogeća. co'-ge-ca, adj. slovenly, with one's clothes not well

put on : maćogeća, I am slovenly. éo-gin', . the pith or core of

any thing. coh, adv. when. cok-wan'-zi-ca, n. the smaller kind of willow. co-ka', n. the middle. See cokaya. co-ka', adj. empty, without any thing: coka

wahdi, I have come home empty. co-ka'-dan, adj. naked, bare : tanéomakadan, I

am without clothes ; sićomakadan, I am without

shoes. co-ka'-dan, adv. empty, said of a cask, etc. :

cokadan han. co-ka'-hnag, cont, of cokahnaka. co-ka'-hnag-ya, adv. placed in the middle.

This is used by Mr. Renville for the veil of the temple.

cos, cont. of coza. cos-a', adv. warmly, comfortably,-cosa manka. cos-co'-za, adj. red. of coza. cos-ya', v. a. to cause to warm,-coswaya; cosi

Çiya, to warm oneself, --cosmiciya; to put out to dry, as cooked victuals; to dry and smoke, as

meat. cos-ya', adv. warmly. cos-ya'-ken, adv. in a warm state. co'-tan-ka, n. (co and tanka) a fife, flute, any

wind instrument. co-ton', adj. (éo and ton) ripe, mature. éo'-wa-he, m. a scaffold, such as the Indians

make to dry corn on. co-wo'-he, n. the belly, lower part of the abdo


co-ka'-hna-ka, v. See (okayahnaka. co-ka'-ka, v. red. of coka. co-ka'-ka-dan, adv. red. of cokadan. co-kam', adv. cont, of éokata; in the midst. co-kan', adv. long ago, in former times. co-kan', cont. of coka and en; cokan iyeya, to

shoot through the bowels. éo-kan', . a low bottom, where are lakes or

marshes. co-ka'-pa, adv. in the midst. co-ka'-pa-tan-hay, adv. in the inside. co-ka'-ta, n.

the middle. co-ka'-ta, adv. in the middle, in the midst. ćo-ka'-ya, n. the middle. co-ka'-ya, adv. in the middle. co-ka'-ya-hna-ka, v, a. (cokaya and hnaka) to

place across the middle, place in the middle,-60

kayawahnaka. co-kon', v. a. to purpose evil against, desire to

take the life of one-Cowakon, éoyakon, counkonpi, comakon : waćokoņpi, purposing evil

against. co-ku', n. the inside of the cuticle, the under side

of the skin, the thickness or stripe of the skin ;

the under part of the chin. co-ķin', v. a. to roast on a spit,-cowaķin, coya

ķiŋ, couyķinpi : coķinpi, roasting. com, cont. of copa. co-mni', v. n. to be tired of staying,-comamni,

conimni. See also ićomni. co-mni'-hda, v. n.

to feel uneasy, become tired of staying, -comniwahda, comniunhdapi. co-mni'-hda-zi, v. n. to sigh, groan,-comniwa

hdazi, éomniyahdazi, comniunhdazipi. com-ya', v. a. of copa; to cause to wade, -com

waya. See copekiya. Go-ni-ea, . flesh, meat of any kind ; the meat

or kernel of grain ; the wood that grows inside

of the sap; waćonića, dried meat. con, for can. See contanka. con-con'-se, adv. See canćanse. con'-ka-ske, n. a fence, an enclosure; a fort. con'-ħin, n. a backload of wood. con'-ķin-ta, n. any place where they go for wood.

. con'-pe-ska, n. glue.

The Dakotas generally obtain it by boiling buffalo heads, and use it in

fastening on the points of their arrows. con'-sma, n. (caŋ and osma) dense woods, forest. con'-tan-ka, n. (can and tanka) high wood,

groves of timber. con'-te-ki, n. (éan and otehi) thick woods. co-pa', v, a. to wade, go in the water, -cowapa,

coyapa, counpapi. co-pe'-ki-ya, v. a. to cause to wade-copewa


co-wo'-he-a-ka-hpe, n. (cowohe and akalipe)

an apron. . co-ya', v. n. to ripen, as grain, etc. co-ya'-pi, n. harvest. co'-za, adj. warm, comfortable, used both in

regard to persons and things, as clothing,

houses, etc.,—maćoza, nićoza, unćozapi. ću, n. dew : ću sma, heavy dew. cu-ću'-ste, n. the side below the ribs, the flank. cu'-kćan, n. a kind of duck. éu-kćan'-pa-gi, n. a duck about the size of a

mallard, with a grey head and white breast. ću-kćan'-pa-sa-pa, n. a species of duck, with a

black head and neck. ću-kćan'-ta-hu-sa-pe-dan, v. Same as cukćan

pasapa. éu-kéan'-tan-ka, n. the large species of duck

which they denominate cukćan. cu'-mni, n. dew-drops. ću-mni'-se, n. dew standing in drops, dew

drops. cu-mni'-se-se, n. dew-drops all over any thing. éun, n. a woman's elder sister, used only with

pronouns : mićun and miéunwaye, my elder

sister ; nićun, thy elder sister. éun'-ku, n. her elder sister. éun-ksi', n. a daughter : miéunksi, my daughter ;

nićunksi, thy daughter ; unkićunksipi, our daugh

ters. cun-ksi'-tku, n. his or her daughter. éun-ksi'-ya, v. to have for a daughter, count as

a daughter,-éunksiwaya. cun'-ksu-dan, n. a little bow, such as small boys


ćun-we', n. (Thank.) Same as cun. ćun-we'-ku, n. (Ihank.) Same as cunku. ćun-we'-ya, v. (Ihank.) Same as ćunkuya and

ćunya. cun-win'-tku, n. his or her daughter.

ćuns, n.

my daughter; used only when an address is made to the individual. cun-ya', v. to have for an elder sister,-miéun

waya, ćunkuyaya. cu-pe', n. marrow. ću-sni', adj. cool, as dewy mornings and even

ings. ću-sta'-ka, adj. damp, dewy, wet. ću-te', n. the side under the arm, pleura ; cute

pakidoka, to make holes in one's flesh, as one in

mourning. ću-ti'-çin, v. to carry at the side or under the arm,

as a powder-horn or shot-pouch, strapped over

the shoulder and coming down under the arm. cu-ti'-ki-çin, v. pos. of ćutiệin. cu-tu'-hu, n.

a rib, the ribs. ću-wi', n. the side, pleura : ćuwi mayazay, my

side aches. ću-wi'-hu, n. the ribs. cu-wi'-pa-ha, n. the prominent part of the side

below the arms. ću'-wi-ta, adj. cold, feeling cold, used only of

living things,—maćuwita, nićuwita, uncuwitapi. cu'-ya, v. a. to cause dew,—ćuwaya.

da-kon', cont. of dakota. da-kon'-ki-ci-ya-pi, n. alliance, friendship;

dakonkićiya yakonpi, they are in alliance. da-kon'-ya, v. a. to be friendly with, to have for

a friend,—dakonwaya, dakonunyaŋpi. da-ko'ta, adj. feeling affection for, friendly ;

wadakota śni, unfeeling, without natural affec

tion. Da-ko'ta, n. p. the name of the Sioux Indians.

They are divided into seven principal divisions, Mdewakantonways, Wahpetonwans, Walipekutes, Sisitonways, Ihanktonways, Ihanktonwaynas, and Titoyways,-Damakota, Danikota, Daunko

tapi, Dawićakota. dam-ya', adv. stifly or thickly, as in making

mush; opposed to hdaheya: damya ećon, to

make thick or stiff. dan, a diminutive termination of pronouns, nouns,

adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. It is often changed to na, which is in common use in the Sisitoŋway and Thanktonway dialects. When suffixed to numeral adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, and adverbs, it signifies only; as waŋžidan, only one; denana, only these ; dehanna, only

80 far. See Grammar, in the chapter on Nouns. da'-pa, adj. sticky, adhesive, as clay; thick, stiff,


as mud.

ć, the fourth letter of the Dakota alphabet. It has

the peculiar or click sound of ć, which is made by pressing the end of the tongue against the palate, and at the moment of separation making

the sound of Eng. ch. ¢a, conj. and. Same as ķa. ça, v. of ķa; to dig. See kica. çe-han, adv. when. Same as ķehan. çeś, conj. although. Same as kes. çe'-yas, conj. even if, although. Same as ķeyag.


d, the fifth letter of the Dakota alphabet. da, v. a. to form an opinion of, whether good or

bad; to think of or esteem in any manner,—wada, yada, undapi. It is used often with waste and

šića, as waste wada. da, v. a. to ask, demand, -wada, yada, undapi;

kida, to ask of one. da, v. 2d pers. sing. of ya, to yo; thou goest. da-ka', v. a. to have an opinion of, whether good

or bad. Same as da. da-ka'-eś, adv. Same as nakaeś. Not much

used. da-kan'-non, v. 2d pers. sing. ; thou art. Pl.,

dakannoypi. It is a defective verb, these being the only forins in use.

da-za'-ta, adv. back of, back from ; i. q. Heyata. da-za'-tan-han, adv. back from, out from. de, pron. dem. this; pl. dena, these. de, v. a. to go after; to cut or procure, as fire

wood. See cande. de'-ca, adv. such as this. de-ca'-ki-con, v. a. to do thus to,-dećawećon,

dećayećon, dećaunkićonpi. See ećakićon. de-ca'-ki-on, v. a. to do this to,—dećawakion. de-ce-ća, adv. like this, as, such as ; pl. dece

capi : demaćeća, I am such as this. de-ce'-day, adv. (de and ećedan) this alone. de'-ce-kće-ća, adv. red. of dećeća;

such as these. de'-će-kćen, adv. red. of dećen. de'-će-kćen-ya, adv. red. of dećenya. de'-ćen, adv. 80, thus, after this manner. de'-cen-ya, adv. 80, thus. de'-ce-tu, adv. thus, 80; right, this is right. de'-ce-tu-ken, adv. in this manner. de'-ći, adv. here, in this place. de'-ći-ya, adv. here, about here. de'-éi-ya-tan, adv. from this. de'-ći-ya-tan-han, adv. from this place, on this

side. de-ci'-yo-tan, adv. in this direction. de-ci'-yo-tan-han, adv. in this direction, this way.

Not much used.

de'-con, v. a. (de and econ) to do this, act in this

way,--dećamon, decanon, dećonkoņpi. de'-e, this is it. This word, and also hee and ee,

contain the substantive verb. de'-ga, adj. loose, swinging. See delidega. de-ha', v. 2d pers. sing. of deya. de-han', adv. at this place, here; at this time,

to-day, now. de-han'-han-ke-ća, adv. red. of dehankeća. de-han'-han-na, adv. red. of dehanna. de-han'-han-yan, adv. red. of dehayyan. de-han'-ke-ca, adv. 80 long, so high. de-ban'-na, adv. thus far; now, just now, im

mediately, suddenly. de-han'-na-hin, adv. just now, very lately. de-han'-tan-han, adv. from this, i.q. detayhan. de-han'tu, adv. to this, thus far ; now. de-han'-tu-hin, adv. just so far, just now. de-han'-tu-ken, adv. just so far, in this way;

just now. de-han'-tu-ya, adv. to this extent, on this wise. de-han'-tu-ya-ken, adv. just now, on this wise. de-han'-yan, adv. 80 far, in space; 80 long, in

time. de-he'-tu-ya, adv. just the time, i. q. iyehantu. dek-de'-ġa, adj. red. of dega; loose, wrinkled,

flabby; puffed out. de-ksi', n. mother's brother, uncle, my uncle. It is

not applied to one's father's brothers, who are

called ate : nideksi, thy uncle. de-ksi'-tku, n. his or her uncle. de-ksi'-ya, v.

to have for uncle, call uncle,-dekšiwaya, dekśimayan. de-kta'-ya, v. a. to have no regard for, to be dis

satisfied with ; i. q. ciŋśni and aktaśni,—dekta

waya. dem-de'-pa, adj. notched. den, adv. here, in this place. de-na', pron. pl. of de; these. de-nag'-na-ke-ca, adv. red. of denakeća. de-na'-ke-ća, adv. so many : demanakeća, I am

80 many; deuŋnakecapi, we are so many. de-na'-ke-seh, adv. all these, so many. de-na'-na, adv. only so many, so few ; pl. dena

nanpidan. de-na'-os, adv. these two, both these : denaosnana,

only these two. de-na'-o-za, adv. both these. de-ni'-os, adv. See denaoza. de-ni'-yos, adv. See denaoza. de-pa', v. 1st pers. sing. of deya; I said this. de-péa', v. 1st pers. sing. (de and epća) I thought

this. No other forms in use. de-pek', n. a leper. Introduced from the English. des-de-ża, v. n. red. of deza; to urinate often.

de-tan'-han, adv. from this place, from here,

hence : dematanhan, I am from this place; denitanhan, thou art from here ; from this time,

henceforth, hence. de'-tu, adv. (de and etu) to this, at this place or

time ; hither, here ; hitherto, now. de'-tu-hin-ca, adv. just here. de'-tu-ya, adv. here. de'-ya, v. (de and eya) to say this,—depa, deha. de'-za, v. a.

to urinate,—wadeza, undežapi. de'ża, n.

urine, chamber-ley; wicadeza, urine, the bladder of a person ; tadeža, the bladder of

an animal. di-di'-ta, adj. very warm, hot; said of the tem

perature of the weather, of a house, etc. di-di'-ta-hda, v. n. to become very warm ; to re

gard as hot, -diditawahda. do, a particle, used at the end of a phrase or sen

tence, for the sake of euphony or emphasis, as waste do : do’ is used by the men alone; the

women say 'ye.' do, adj. soft, tender, moist, as fresh meat, etc.;

opposed to saka, dried. See tado, fresh meat. do, n. food. do-éin', v. to want food, have an appetite. do-ćin'-pi, n. appetite. do-do', adj. red. of do; soft, damp, fresh. do-dom'-ya, adv. tenderly, very tender ; said of

meat well cooked : dodomya span, cooked tender. do-do'-pa, adj. soft, miry. do-do'-pa, n.

a miry place. do-hde'-ska, n. the gullet, oesophagus. do-ke', n.

the parts of the cheeks and throat which are loose and not fastened to the bones. do-ksi', n. the arm-pit : doksi kase, to chafe under

the arm, as a tight coat. do-ksin'-ca, n. a mink, Mustela lutraola. dom-ya', adv. domya span. See dodomya. do'-pa, adj. soft, miry. See dodopa. do'-pa, v. n. to mire. See dodopa, kadopa, etc. do-te', n. food. do-te', n. the throat, the whole forepart of the

neck. do-te'-hbe-za, n. the wind

pipe, trachea. do-ti'-çiŋ, n. See idotićin. do-tku', n. the throat, especially of animals; the

part immediately under the jaw. dot-o'-pi-ye, n. (dote and opiye) a granary,

pantry. do-wan', v. n. to sing,—wadowaŋ, yadowan. do-wan', n. a song, hymn, -mitadowaŋ. See

odowan. do-wan'-pi, n. hymns ; singing. do-ya', adj. moist, not dry, fresh, as meat. do-ya'-ke, adj. fresh, not dried.

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