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ho-wa'-ya, v. n. to cry out, groan, -waho

wamda, yahowada: sićahowaya, to cry out

badly: wasićahowamda. ho'-ya, v.

there is fish ; said when fish assemble in one place and die there : hoya kta, there will

be fish. ho-ya', v. to use the voice of another, as to have

another sing in one's stead,-howaya, hoćiya. ho'-ya-gi-ta, v. (ho and yaġita) to make the

voice hoarse by speaking,-homdaġita. ho-ye', v. imperat. Same as howo. Ye and pe

are the precatory terminations of the imperative

mood, and the forms used by the women. ho'-ye-ki-ya, v. a. (ho and yekiya) to cry to,

call to, pray to,-hoyewakiya, hoyeyakiya, hoye

unkiyapi. ho'-ye-ya, v. a. (ho and yeya) to cause the voice

to go to,-hoyewaya, hoyeunyanpi. ho'-yu-hi, n. a ring in timber, a year's growth;

a line or wrinkle in the skin of a person. ho'-yu-psi-ca, v. a. to make fish jump, i. e. to

catch fish with a hook and line,-homdupsića,

hounyupsićapi. ho'-yu-sde-ca, n. wrinkles. ho'-yu-sde-ce-ton, v. n. to have wrinkles, to be

come old, -hoyusdećewaton. ho-zi'-zi-dan, n. (hogan and zizi) the perch, a

kind of fish. See sintaka. hu, v. a. to copulate, have intercourse with a fe

male,—wahu, yahu, unhupi. hu, n. a bone, bones,—mihu, nihu, wićahu; the

leg, legs of a person or animal, as humayukan, I have legs; the stock or stem of any thing, as of a plant, tree, etc.; the wheel of a waggon,

etc. See huha and huhu. hu-a'-ki-pe, n. See huwaķipe. hu-ćan', n. (hu and can) the stock of a gun; the

shaft of an arrow. hu-ha', n. the limbs, members of the body, as the

legs and arms; the legs of any thing, as of a ket

tle. hu-ha'-sa-pe-dan, n.(huha and sapa) the black

legged fox. hu-ha'-sa-dan, n. (huha and sa) the red-legged

fox. hu-ha'-ton, v. n. (huha and ton) to have legs or

limbs,-huhawaton. hu-ha'-to-pa, n. (huha and topa) a quadruped,

the wolf in particular. hu-ha'-ya, v. a. to have for members, use for

legs,-huhawaya. hu'-hde, v. a. (hu and hde) to set out, plant out,

as a young tree or plant of any kind,-huwahde,

huunhdepi. hu-hde'-pi, n. things set out, plants.

hu-hu', n. a bone, bones, of the bone kind : maza

huhu, arm-bands, probably because at first they

were made of bone. hu-hus', cont. of huhuza. hu-hus'-ya, v. a. to cause to shake, to shake,

-huhuswaya. hu-hus'-ya, adv. in a shaking manner. hu-hu'-to-pa-o-wa-hde, n. the large end of

the thigh-bone. hu-hu'-za, adj. shaking, trembling,—mahuhuza,

nihuhuza. hu-hu'-za-han, part. shaken, shaking. hu'-H'a, n. bones bare or stripped of flesh, a skele

ton : tihuli'a, the skeleton of a house, as when the

poles of a lodge are left standing. hu'-ha-ka, n. a spear for killing muskrats. hu'-k'a-pi, n. a skeleton. hu'-h'a-ya, adv. skeleton-like, as the poles of a

tent: huli'aya hay, to stand as a skeleton. hu-kba', n. a kind of large water-grass, the stalks

of which are eaten by the Dakotas. hu-hna'-ġa, v. See hulinaġa, the more correct

form. hu-in'-yun, adv. See huiyun. hu-i'-yun, adv. on foot : huiyuŋ mda, I go on

foot. hu-i'-yun-ken, adv. on foot, walking. hu-ku'-hu, inti. When a deer is brought into

camp, the children shout hukuhu.-S. W. Pond. hu-kun', adv. under, beneath. hu-ku'-ya, adv. below, under, at the lowest

place. hu-mdo', n. the shin-bone. hu-na'-pta, v.

to be lame : sičoğan nawapta, I have sprained my ankle. Said when the muscle

is so injured as to make one lame. hu-na'-ste, v. to sprain one's leg,--hunawaste. hu'-ni. See hihuni. hu'-non-pa, n. (hu and nonpa) a biped, man, in

the sacred language. hun, n. mother,—nihun, thy mother; hunku, his

or her mother. See ina, my mother. hun-hun'-he, inti. alas ! hunk, n. some, a part. hunk'-na-na, adv. only a part. hun-ka', n. a parent or ancestor ; an elder bro

ther is often so called, -mihunka ; one who has raised himself or herself in the estimation of the people so as to be considered as a kind of benefactor or parent of all ; the sun is sometimes so call

ed from his munificence. hun-ka'-ke, n. an ancestor,-mihunkake, nihun

kake, wićahun kake. hun-ka'-ke-ya, v. a. to have for an ancestor,

hunkakewaya, hunkakeunyanpi.

hun-ka'-wan-zi, n. a brother, one of the same

family,--mihun kawanži, nihunkawanži. hun-ka'-wan-zin-ki-ći-ya-pi, n. brethren. hun-ka'-wan-zin-ya, v. a. to have for a bro

ther, count as brother,-hunkawanžinwaya. hun-ka'-wan-zi-tku, n. his brother. hun-ka'-ya, v. to consider and honor as hunka,

-hurkawaya, hurkauŋyapi. hun-ka'-ya-pi, n. one who is called hunka. Used

also for deacon or elder ; the sun. hun'-ke-śni, v. n. to be slow, not fast, in walking

or working, -wahunkesni, yahunkesni, unhunka

piśni : cante hunkesni, low-spirited. hun-kti'-ya, v. imperat. only ; go away, go

along, get out of the way,—hunktiya wo. hun'-ku, n. his or her mother. hun'-ku-ya, v. a. to call mother, have for mother,

:-hunkuwaya, hunkuyaya. hun-pe', n. See honpe. hun-ska', n. leggins ; hunska oton, to wear leg

gins. hun-skal-ya, v. a. to have for leggins, make

leggins of,-hunskawaya. hun-ski'-ća-He, n. garters. hun-ste', adv. well, at any rate; ećamon kta

huŋste, I will do it at any rate ; hećetu kte

hunste, well, so it will be. hun'-tka, n. a large water-fowl, the cormorant: hu-pa'-hu, n. the knee; the knee-pan, patella. hu-pa'-za-hde, v. to sit with the knees bent up. hu-pa'-za-hde-ya, adv. hupazahdeya wanka, to

lie on the back with the knees sticking up. hu-san'-hmi, adj. very lean ; i. q. tamaheca

hinéa. hu-sdi', n. the lower part of the leg, just above

the ankle; the ankle. hu'-stag, cont. of hustaka. hu'-stag-ya, v. a. to enfeeble,-hustagwaya. hu'-sta-ka, v. n. to be faint, weak, weary, feeble,

lame,-humastaka. hu-ste', adj. lame,-humašte, huniste, huunstepi. hu-ste'-ken, adv. lamely : huśteken mani. hu-ste'-ya, v. a. to make lame,-huśtewaya. hu-ste'-ya, adv. limpingly. hu-ste'-ya-ken, adv. lamely. hu'-ta, n. the root of a tree or plant: can huta,

a stump with sprouts, the bottom of a tree. hu-ta', n. the shore or margin of a river or lake;

the edge of a prairie or wood. hu'-ta-hu, n. the part on top of the leg-bone, the

shin-bone. hu'tam, adv. cont. of hutapa; hutam yeye éin,

along the shore. hu'-tam-ya, adv. by the edge or shore ; at the

time of need or extremity. See hutamyaken.

hu'tam-ya-ken, adv. by the edge or shore ; at

the time of need, in one's extremity : hutamyaken ómayakiye śni, you did not help me when I

was most in need. hu-ta'-na-ku-te, v. n. to play with the hutina

cute; to throw a stick so as to make it slide along

on the snow,-hutanawakute. hu-ta'-pa, adv. out back ; i. q. éanyata. hu-ta'-ta, adv. at the shore or edge; to the shore;

to the woods or interior : hutata unyanpi. hu-ta'-ta-ki-ya, adv. towards the shore. hu'-te, n.

the bottom, as of a tree, the lowest part, root : canhute, the roots of a tree. hu-ti'-na-cu-te, n. a long stick with a large head,

which the Dakotas make slide on the snow or

ice. hu-tkan', n. a root, the roots of trees, plants, etc. hu-tkan'-o-mdo-ton, n. (hutkan and omdoton)

the square root, in arithmetic. hut-o'-tkon-za, n. a bluff shore with deep water

below. hu-to'-ske, adj. broad at one end, tapering. hu-wa'-ķi-pe, n. the smaller bones in the lower

leg and fore-arm: cankpe huwaķipe, the fibula ;

iśpa huwaķipe, the ulna. hu-wa'-pa, n.

an ear of corn, corn unshelled. See wahuwapa. hu-wa'-pa-Kpe, n. See kuwapalipe. hu-we', v.

to bring, fetch. Used with other verbs, as huwe ya, to go to bring,-huwe mda; huwe i, to have been for ; huwe hi, to have come for. hu-ya', v. to have for a bone, have for a staff or

leg,-huwaya. hu-ya'-ta, adv. in the leg. hu-yo'-ka-Kmin, n. the hollow behind the knee. hwo, adv. interrogative. Commonly used when the

speaker is at a distance: toki da hwo, where are

you going?


a curl.

h, the tenth letter of the Dakota alphabet. It repre

sents a deep surd guttural. ha, adj. curled, rough. See yulia, to curl. ha, n. Ha, v. a. to bury, as a dead person, or as corn

in holes or caches, -walia, unhapi. h'a, adj. grey or mixed, as black and white, the

black appearing under the white, as in the bad

ger. ha-ha', adj. red. of ha; curling, curled. See yu

haha. ha-ha', n. waterfalls, so called from the curling

of the waters; esp. the Falls of St. Anthony.

Ha-Ka'-mdo-te, n. the mouth of the St. Peter's

or Minnesota river. Ha-ha'-ton-way, n. p. the Chippewa or Ojibwa

Indians, the name given to them by the Dakotas,

as those who make their village at the falls. Ha-ha'-wa-kpa, n. the Mississippi river, lit. river

of the falls. ha'-ka, adj. branching, having many prongs, as

some deer's horns. See hehaka. Ha-ka', adj. ruffled, not smooth, made rough, as a

feather. ha-kpa', adj. not straight or level, a little curved ;

ruffled. ham, cont. of hapa ; liam hinhda and ham iyaya,

to start up, as something scared. ham-ham'-ya, v. red. of lamya. bam-ka'-pa, v. red. of hapa. ham-Ka'-pe-dan, n. the name given to silk

cloth of any kind, probably from the rustling

noise made in handling it. ha-mna', adj. smelling like stale meat, tainted. Ham-ya', v. a. to frighten or scare away any

thing, as wild animals ; to drive off ,—hamwaya. han, n. a scab : laŋ hinlipaya, the scab has fal

len off haŋ, v. n. to do, work, act, in any way,—wahan,

unhanpi : token yahay he, what are you doing ? han-di'-ta, v. n. to be active, make progress in

work : handita waun, I am active. han-di'-ta-ya, v. a. to spur one up,-landita

waya: handitaiçiya, to spur oneself up,-handi

tamiciya. han-di'-ta-ya, adv. actively. han-han'-ska, v. n. to be long-winded, not soon

tired. kan-hi', v. n. to be slow at work, advance slowly

or leisurely,-hanwahi, haŋunhipi. han-hi'-ka, n. one who is slow at work, one who

is incapable,-hanwahika. han-hi'-ki-ya, adv. slowly, carefully, as in

finishing a piece of work. han-hi'-ya, adv. slowly, with difficulty. han-hi', adj. sloppy, slushy. Han-i'-ța, v. n. to give out at work, be laid up

by work,-hanimata. han-i'-te-ya, v. a. to cause to give out at work,

-hanitewaya. han'-i-yo-kpa-ni, v. See hanokpani. han'-i-yo-tpa-ni, v. See hanotpani. han-o'-kpa-ni, v. n. to be unable to reach or to

do, unable to accomplish; lianokpani waun, I am

unable to accomplish. han-o'-kpa-ni-yan, v. a. to cause to fail of ac

complishing,-hanokpaniwaya, hanokpaniunyanpi.

Kan-o'-tpa-ni, v. n. Same as hanokpani. Han-o'-tpa-ni-yaŋ, v. Same as kanokpaniyan. han-pi'-ća, v. that can be done : token hanpića

śni, it cannot be done. Han-te', n. the cedar, of the genus Juniperus

and Cupressus. han-te'-sa, n. See hanteśadan. Han-te'-sa-dan, n. the red cedar, Juniperus vir

ginius. han-yan', v. n. to fail, decline, sink away, as in

sickness; to be near death, i. q. wanna te kta; to

be very tired,-hanwaya, hanunyanpi. han-ye'-ća, v. n. to fail, decline, sink away, as in

approaching death,-hanwayeća. ha'-pa. See kaliapa. ha'-pa, v. n. to make a rustling noise, as in

leaves or bushes, to rustle. ha-tpa', adj. ruffled, as feathers or hair. See

hakpa. Kba, adj. sleepy, drowsy,-maliba, un libapi, wi

caliba. Hba'-ka, adj. sleepy, mild, gentle, -malbaka. hba'-ya, v. a.

to make sleepy,-h bawaya. Hba'-ya, adv. mildly, gently. kba'-ye-dan, adv. softly, gently, mildly: kbaye

dan waun. Kbog'-ya, adv. collected, together. hbo'-ka. See kaliboka. Hbu, v. n. to make a noise as in chewing snow or

ice, to make a crunching noise. Hbu-ibu', v. red. of libu. hbu-wa'-han, part. crumbled, as ice or snow in

the Spring hóa, m.

a flower, blossom. See walića. Hća, v. n. to blossom ; léa aya, to bloom or blos


héa, adv. cont. of linéa.
Hća-wa'-he-ca, adj. slovenly. See kéoya.
héa'-ya, v. n.

to blossom. hóa-ya, adv. blossomimg. Hći, adj. broken out in gaps. See kahći. Hći, n. a gap, as in the edge of an axe. Hći-han', part. broken out, as a piece from the

edge of an axe; torn out, as the ear by ear

rings. hoi-hoi', red. of hỏi; gapped. Kéi-wa'-han, part. broken out in gaps, gapped. héo, adj. slovenly, slatternly. Hćo'-ka, adj. slovenly, malicoka. Hćo'-ya, adv. in a slovenly manner. Hćo'-ya-ken, adv. slovenlily. hda, v, n. to rattle. hda-hda', v. red. of lda. See mazalidalida. hida-kda', n.

a rattle. hda-kida'-ya, adv. rattling, loosely.

hda-hda'-ye-dan, adv. not securely, loosely :

hdaldayedan wahnaka, I placed it loosely. Kda-üda'-yen, adv. not securely : kdalidayen

hnake øni, he has not placed it in securely. Hdah-ya', adv. to a distance, i.q. tehan; remov

ing. hdah-ye'-ca, v. n. to remove or go off to a dis

tance : bdaliyeće śni, it does not go off, said of deer

or other animals that stay about in the same place. Kda-ya', adv. rattling ; not safely. Hda-yen', adv. not securely or safely. hdi, v. n.

to break out in sores, be sore, raw, — malidi, uyhdipi : cankahu hidi, to have a sore

back, as a horse. hdi, n.

a running sore, a raw place. hdi, adj. miry. See kahdi. Kdi-kdi', adj. red. of lidi; broken out in sores ;

miring. hdi-di-dan, adj. miry, muddy. Kdo, v. n. to growl, as a dog. Kdo-ge'-ća, adj. hollow, as a tree. Kdo-han', adj. slovenly, not well put on, as

clothes. Kdo-he'-ca, adj. slovenly. kdo-he'-ya, adv. in a slovenly manner. hdo-kdo'-ka, adj. full of holes. See kdoka. bdo-hdo'-ka-han, part. full of holes. hdo-kdo'-ka-wa-han, part. having holes in. Kdo'-ka, n. a hole : mini lidoka, a spring. Kdo'-ka, part. See kahdoka. Kdo-ka'-han, part. opened, having a hole in. Kdo-ka'-wa-han, part. having a hole in. Kdo-ki'-ya, v. a.

to make growl,-hdowakiya. kdo-ya', v. a. to cause to growl,--hdowaya. hdo-ya', adv. growling. Ke, n. a high hill or ridge of hills, a mountain ;

esp., the Coteau des prairies. Ke-gin'-će, n. dross : pa heğinée, dandruff. See

also ġinġinća. H'e-b'e', adj. dangling, ragged. he'-i-mni-za, n. (le and imniza) a rocky ridge. Ke-in'-kpa, n. the brink or brow of a hill, the

end of a hill. See hinkpa. Ke-in'-tpa, n. Same as Heinkpa. he'-i-pa, n. the brow of a hill ; esp., the head or

commencement of the Coteau des prairies. he-ku', n. the foot of a hill back from a river:

heku unyanpi, we go at the foot of the hill. Ke'-ma-ya-ćan, n. a wooded hill. he'-mdo, n. a hill-top, ridge ; i. q. mdamdata. Ke'-mdo-ka, n. Same as femdo. he-mni'-ćan, n. (he mni and can) a hill that

appears as if it were in the water ; Red Wings village, a short distance above Lake Pepin, is so called.

Ken, adv. (he and en) ashore : hen eću, to put

any thing ashore, as from a boat; hen ihan, to

step ashore. Ke-na'-ke, n. a hill-side, slope. he-na'-ke-ya, adj. sloping, sideling. He'-pe-se, adv. hepese ekpeya, to make a splash,

as in throwing any thing into water. het-a'-żu, v. a.

to put ashore, as the load of a boat. See wahetazu. he-wan'-ke, n. frost, hoar-frost. he-wo'-skan, n. an uninhabited, desert place. He-wo'-skan-tu, adv. in a desert place. he-wo'-skan-tu-ya, adv. away from any dwell

ing, in a desert place, solitarily. he-wo'-ta-he-dan, adv. where no one lives, in a

desert place. Ke-ya'-ka, n. a hill, river hill, mountain. he-ya'-ka-ta, adv. at the hill. he-yam', cont. of heyapa ; by land, following the

hill : heyam unyanpi, we go by land. he-yan', cont. of heyata; inland, in the interior. he-ya'-pa, v. n. to go by land, travel by land, in

distinction from going by water,-heyawapa. he-ya'-ta, adv. back by the hill, back from a

river, back from a fire, out back, back, behind : heyata ya, to go out back, retire, withdraw,heyata mda; heyata iyeya, to shove aside or

back, put out of office, reject. hi-ca'-han, v. n. to slip, miss step, stumble and

fall,-maliitahan. hi-ca'-he-ya, v. a. to cause to slip and fall,

hićahewaya. kin, adv. cont. of liņća; very. hin'-ća, adv. very: waste binéa, very good ; sice

kinéa, very bad. Kin-ca'-ke, adv. very, indeed. Kin'-kpa, n. (lie and inkpa) the brow of a hill. hin'-kpa-ta, adv. to or at the top of the hill :

hinkpata unyanpi kta, we will go to the top of the


kin'-kpa-tan-han, adv. at the hill-top, from the

hill. kin-tkan'-hu, n. the upper arm-bone. Hintkan

alone is said not to be used. hin'-tpa, n. Same as hinkpa. kin'-tpa-ta, adv. Same as hinkpata. hin'-tpa-tan-han, adv. Same as hinkpatayhan. hin-yan'-tan, n. the daisy, which the Dakotas

use in dyeing yellow. hi-ya'-ya, adv. bungled. See yuliiyaya. hmin, adj. crooked, misshapen : siha himin,

a crooked foot. hmin-Kmin', adj. red. of limin. Kmin-Hmin'-yan, adv. red. of bmiŋyan; crook


Kmin'-yan, adv. crookedly. kmu'-ġa, v.

See hmunga. Kmuŋ, v. n. to buzz, hum, as the stones of a mill

or the flapping of birds' wings; to whistle, as a bullet : kimun hinhda, to make a buzzing noise

suddenly. hmun'-ga, v. a. to cause sickness or death, as the

Dakotas pretend to be able to do, in a supernatural way; to bewitch, kill by enchantment, -wahmunga, unlimungapi, mahmuņģa; kićihmun

ġapi, bewitching each other. Kmun'-ga, adj. smelling strong, fishy, rancid,

stinking, as grease. Hmunk'-mna, v. n. to smell rancid or fishy. hmun-hmun', v. red. of limun; to buzz. Kmun-kmun'-ġa, adj. red. of limunġa; rancid. kmun-ya', v. a. to cause to hum, make buzz,

limunwaya. Kmun-yan', adv. buzzing. Kna, v. n. to snort, as something dying. hna-han', adj. slovenly, not tidy, hanging, as a

horse's lip. hna-he'-ya, adv. loosely, slovenly: linaheya uy,

is slovenly. Kni'-yan, v. cante liniyan, to flutter or be troubled,

be sick at the stomach, as from eating too much,

-mahniyan. Kni'-yan-yan, adj. afraid, quaking for fear,

mahniyanyan. Kni'-ye-ye-se, adv. in haste, affrightedly: ini

yeyese mawani, I walk hastily. Bo, v. n. to stand up on end, as hair. See ało. ho, intj. of surprise. Ko'-e-ća, intj. expressing dissatisfaction or dis

sent. ho'-e-cak, inti. Same as hoećahe. Ko'-e-ca-He, intj. of disbelief and dissent. Ko-ka', n. the badger. ko-na'-ptan, n. See hunnaptan. Kon'-hi-ki-ya, v. a. to finish, perfect. See hun

hikiya. Kon'-hi-ya, v. a. to finish, perfect. See hun

hiya. Kon'-ki-ta, v. n. to become very tired. See liun

kita. Kon'-kpa-ni, v. n. to be in an unfinished state.

See kunkpani.
Kon'-kpa-ni-ki-ya, v. to fail of finishing. See

Kon'-kpa-ni-yan, v. See Hunkpaniyan.
Hon'-tpa-ni, v. See huntpani.
Kon'tpa-ni-ki-ya, v. See liuntpanikiya.
Kon'-tpa-ni-yan, v. See kuntpaniyan.
Ko'-pi-dan, intj. astonishing ! wonderful !
Ko'-pi-dan-ni-ye, intj. astonishing !

Ko'-pi-dan-sni, intj. impossible!
Ko-pu'-za, n. (lie and opuza) a dry country,

desert. Ko'-śki, adj. hilly, rough, uneven, as a country. ho'-ski-ski, adj. red. of hośki ; abounding in little

hills, a hilly country. ho'-ta, adj. grey, brown. Hot-ho-ta, adj. red. of kota. Ho-țin'-za, 1. (le and oţinza) hard ground, a

desert. ho-wo'-skan, n. an uninhabited country. hpa, part. thrown down. See yukpa. hpa, v. n. to be wet or clogged, as musquitoes'

wings with dew: caponka lipapi, the musquitoes

are wet with dew. Hpa, adv. together, in a bunch, said of beans or

potatoes which grow together. hpa-han', part. thrown down. hpan, adj. soaked with water, wet. hpan-yan', v. a. to soak or steep in water,

hpan waya, lipayunyanpi. Hpa-wa'-han, part. thrown off, thrown down. Hpe'-ća, adj. faint, exhausted,-mahpeća; kpeća

śni, untiring, strong to endure fatigue. hpe-wan'-ka, v. n.

to stay with the


hover over, as a hen does over her brood, brood over,

hpemunka. hpu. See yuhpu. Kpu-han' part. crumbled off hpu-kpu', red. of hpu. Kpu-wa'-han, part. crumbled off, come apart,

as things formerly stuck together. kpu-ya', adv. crumbling off. hta, cont. of Itayetu. hta-eu'-sni, n. the cool of the evening. Kta'-ka. See yahitaka. Kta-ki'-ya, adv. towards evening. Kta'-ki-ya, v. a. to cause to catch and hold, as a

trap. See mazaħtakiyapi. hta-ki'-ya-ken, adv. towards evening. Ktan, cont. of litata; kitan iyaya, to become

weak. Kta-ni', v.n.

to labor, toil, work, do such labor as the Dakota women do,-litawani, hitayani, hita

unnipi. hta'-ni-han, n. yesterday; litanihan sanpa and

htanihan ićima, the day before yesterday. Hta-ni'-pi, n. laboring ; i. q. wićolitani. Ktan'-yan, adj. rough, made rough ; i.q. po

waye. Hta'ta, adj. languid, weak,—maltata. Kta'-te-ća, adj. weak, feeble,-maktateća. Kta-yen', adv. in the evening; generally, last

evening. Kta'-ye-tu, n. the evening.

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