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canal to be opened 5 kilometers in width on either side t and Colon.

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So far as necessary for the construction, maintenance, and of the canal, the United States shall bave the use and occupationthe group of small islands in the Bay of Panama, named Perico, Naos, a. Flamenco, together with 10 fathoms of water in the Bay of Limon in extension of the canal; but the same shall not be construed as being within the zone herein defined nor governed by the special provisions applicable to the zone. This concession shall be for the term of one hundred years, renewable at the option of the United States for periods of similar durations and subject to the payment of the amount hereinafter expressed.

This grant shall in no manner invalidate the titles of rights of private land holders in the said zone of territory, nor shall it interfere with the rights of way over the public roads of the department.

All the stipulations contained in article 35 of the treaty of 1846–1848 between the contracting parties shall continue and apply in full force to the cities of Panama and Colon and to the accessory community lands within the said zone, and the territory thereon shall be neutral territory, and the United States shall continue to guarantee the neutrality thereof and the sovereignty of Colombia thereover in conformity with the above-mentioned article 35 of said treaty.

In furtherance of this provision there shall be created a joint commission by the Governments of Colombia and the United States that shall establish and enforce sanitary and police regulations.

ARTICLE IV. The rights and privileges granted to the United States by the terms of this convention shall not affect the sovereignty of the Republic of Colombia over the territory within whose boundaries such rights and privileges are to be exercised.

The United States freely acknowledges and recognizes this sovereignty and disavows any intention to impair it in any way whatever or to increase its territory at the expense of Colombia or of any of the sister republies in Central or South America, but, on the contrary, it desires to strengthen the power of the republics on this continent and to promote, develop, and maintain their prosperity and independence.

ARTICLE V. The Republic of Colombia authorizes the United States to construct and maintain at each entrance and terminus of the proposed canal a port for vessels using the same, with suitable light-houses and other aids to navigation, and the United States is authorized to use and occupy, within the limits of the Zone fixed by this convention, such parts of the coast line and of the lands and islands adjacent thereto as are necessary for this purpose, including the construction and main tenance of breakwaters, dikes, jetties, embankments, coaling stations, docks, and other appropriate works. And the United States undertakes the construction and maintenance of such works and will bear all the expense thereof. The ports when established shall be declared free, and their demarcations shall be clearly and definitely detined.

To give effect to this article the United States will give special attention and care to the maintenance of works for drainage, sanitary,

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previoul purposes along the line of the canal and its dependencies, „sionary co prevent the invasion of epidemics or of securing their exposito-suppression should they appear. With this end in view the Olted States will organize hospitals along the line of the canal, and

will suitably supply the towns of Panama and Colon with the necessary aqueducts and drainage works, in order to prevent their becoming centers of infection on account of their proximity to the canal.

The Government of Colombia will secure the possession of the land that may be required in the towns of Panama and Colon to effect the improvements above referred to, and the Government of the United States shall be quthorized to impose and collect equitable water rates, previously agreed upon with the Government of Colombia, during fifty years for the service rendered; but on the expiration of said term the use of the water shall be free for the inbabitants of Panama and Colon, except to the extent that may be necessary for the maintenance of said aqueducts.

ARTICLE VI. The Republic of Colombia agrees that it will not cede or lease to any foreign government any of its islands or harbors within or adjacent to the Bay of Panama; nor on the Atlantic coast of Colombia, between the Atrato River and the western boundary of the Department of Panama, for the purpose of establishing fortifications, naval or coaling stations, military posts, docks, or other works that might interfere with the construction, maintenance, operation, protection, safety, and free use of the canal and auxiliary works. In order to enable Colombia to comply with this stipulation, the Government of the United States agrees to give Colombia the material support that may be required in order to prevent the occupation of said islands and ports, guaranteeing there the sovereignty, independence, and integrity of Colombia.

ARTICLE VII. The Republic of Colombia includes in the foregoing grant the right, without obstacle, cost, or impediment, to the free navigation and use of the waters of the Chagres River and other streams, lakes, and lagoons, and of all waterways, natural and artificial, within the jurisdiction and under the dominion of the Republic of Colombia, in the department of Panama, that may be necessary or desirable for the construction, maintenance, and operation of the canal and its auxiliary works, including the right to raise and lower the levels of the waters and to detiect them, and to rectify and navigate any and all streams, lakes, and lagoons. All damages caused to private landowners by inundation, or by the deviation of water course, or in other ways arising out of the construction or operation of the canal, shall in each case be appraised and settled by a joint commission appointed by the Governments of Columbia and the United States, but the cost of the indemnities so agreed upon shall be borne solely by the United States.

ARTICLE VIII.

The Government of Colombia declares free for all time the parts at either entrance of the canal and the waters thereof in such manner that there shall not be collected by the Government of Colombia

2967 custom-house tolls, tonnage, anchorage, light-house, wb quarantine dues, nor any other charges or taxes of any levied or imposed by the Government of Colombia up! using or passing through the canal or belonging to or ey" United States, directly or indirectly, in connection wit tion, maintenance, and operation of the main work or i. upon the cargo, officers, crew, or passengers of any sucu vessel; it being the intent of this convention that all vessels and their cargoes, crews, and passengers shall be permitted to use and pass through the canal and the ports leading thereto, subject to no other demands or impositions than such tolls and charges as may be imposed by the United States for the use of the canal and other works. It being understood that such tolls and charges shall be equal for vessels of all nations.

The ports leading to the canal also shall be free to the commerce of the world, and no duties or taxes shall be imposed, except upon merchandise destined to be introduced for the consumption of the rest of the Republic of Colombia, or the department of Panama, and upon vessels touching at the ports of Colon and Panama and which do not cross the canal. Though the said ports shall be free and open to all, the Government of Colombia may establish in them such custom-houses and guards as Colombia may deem necessary to collect duties on importations destined to other portions of Colombia and to prevent contraband trade. The United States shall have the right to make use of the ports at the two extremities of the canał as places of anchorage, in order to make repairs for loading, unloading, depositing, or transshipping cargoes either in transit or destined for the service of the canal.

ARTICLE IX. There shall not be imposed any taxes-national, municipal, departmental, or of any other class-upon the canal, the vessels that may use it, tugs and other vessels employed in the service of the canal, the railways and auxiliary works, storehouses, workshops, offices, quarters for laborers, factories of all kinds, warehouses, wharves, machinery and other works, property, and effects appertaining to the canal or railroad or that may be necessary for the service of the canal or railroad and their dependencies, whether situated within the cities of Panama and Colon or any other place authorized by the provisions of this convention.

Nor shall there be imposed contributions or charges of a personal character of whatever species upon officers, employees, laborers, and other individuals in the service of the canal and its dependencies.

ARTICLE X. It is agreed that telegraph and telephone lines, when established for .canal purposes, may also, under suitable regulations, be used for public and private business in connection with the systems of Colombia and the other American Republies and with the lines of cable companies authorized to enter the ports and territory of these Republies; but the official dispatches of the Government of Colombia and the authorties of the Department of Panama shall not pay for such service higher tolls than those required from the officials in the service of the United States.

ARTICLE XI.

The Government of Colombia shall permit the immigration and free access to the lands and workshops of the canal enterprises of all employees and workmen of whatever nationality under contract to work upon the said canal and its dependencies, with their respective families, and all such persons shall be free and exempt from the military service of the Republic of Colombia.

ARTICLE XII.

The United States may import at any time into the said Zone, free of customs duties, imposts, taxes, or other charges, and without any restrietion, any and all vessels, dredges, engines, cars, machinery, tools, explosives, materials, supplies, and other articles necessary and convenient in the construction, maintenance, and operation of the canal and auxiliary works; also all provisions, medicines, clothing, supplies, and other things necessary and convenient for the officers, employees, workmen, and laborers in the service and employ of the United States within the said Zone and for their families. "If any such articles are disposed of for use without the Zone and within the territory of the Republic, they shall be subject to the same import or other duties as like articles under the laws of Colombia or the ordinances of the Department of Panama.

ARTICLE XIII.

The United States shall have authority within the said Zone to protect and make secure the canal, as well as railways and other auxiliary works, and to preserve order and discipline among the laborers and other persons who may congregate in that region in consequence of the proposed work.

The Governments of Colombia and the United States shall agree upon the regulations necessary for said purpose, as well as to the capture and delivery of criminals to the respective authorities. Special regulations also shall be agreed upon, in the manner aforesaid, for the establishment of laws and jurisdiction to decide controversies that may arise respecting contracts relative to the construction and management of the canal and its dependencies, as well as to the trial and punishment of crimes that may be committed within the said zone of the canal.

ARTICLE XIV.

The works of the canal, the railways, and their auxiliaries shall be declared of public utility, and in consequence all areas of land and water necessary for the construction, maintenance, and operation of the canal and the other specitied works may be expropriated in conformity with the laws of Colombia, except that the indemnity shall be conclusively determined, without appeal by a joint commission appointed by the Governments of Colombia and the United States.

The indemnities awarded by the commission for such expropriation shall be borne by the United States, but the appraisal of said lands and the assessment of damages shall be based upon their value before the commencement of the work upon the canal.

2967 ARTICLE XV.

with The Republic of Colombia grants to the United Statesi, the ports of the Republic open to commerce as places any vessels employed in the canal enterprise, and for a tress having the right to pass through the canal and wishing to anchor in said ports. Such vessels shall be exempt from anchorage and tonnage dues on the part of Colombia.

ARTICLE XVI.

The canal, when constructed, and the entrances thereto shall be neutral in perpetuity, and shall be opened upon equal terms to the vessels of all nations at uniform tonnage and other rates that may be imposed in virtue of the stipulations of this convention and in conformity with the stipulations of the treaty entered into by the Governments of the United States and Great Britain on November 18, 1901, and known as the Hay-Pauncefote treaty.

ARTICLE XVII.

The Government of Colombia shall have the right to transport over the canal its vessels, troops, and munitions of war at all times without paying charges of any kind. This exemption is to be extended to the auxiliary railway for the transportation of persons in the service of the Republic of Colombia or of the department of Panama, or of the police force charged with the preservation of public order, as well as to their baggage, munitions of war, and supplies.

ARTICLE XVIII.

The United States shall have full power and authority to establish and enforce regulations for the use of the canal, railways, and the entering ports and auxiliary works, and to fix rates of tolls and charges thereof, subject to the limitations stated in Article XVI.

ARTICLE XIX.

The rights and privileges granted to the United States by this convention shall not affect the sovereignty of the Republic of Colombia over the real estate that may be acquired by the United States by reason of the transfer of the rights of the New Panama Canal Company and the Panama Railroad Company lying outside of the said canal zone.

ARTICLE XX.

If, by virtue of any existing treaty between the Republic of Colombia and any third power, there may be privileges or concessions relative to an interoceanic means of communication which especially favors such third power, and which in any of its terms may be incompatible with the terms of the present convention, the Republic of Colombia agrees to cancel or modify such treaty in due form, for which purpose it shall give to the said third power the requisite notification within the term of four months from the date of the present convention; and

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