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has built up.

office go vastly farther and still render a larger service. Take statistics. I had occasion not long ago to want statistics of a certain kind, and I called the Department of Agriculture for the ones they could provide. They said they would get at it, and within two hours I had those statistics by messenger. I called the Federal Board for similar statistics at the same time, and they said they would see about it—this is not meant as a criticism-and the next morning they called to say they couldn't send those statistics, that they didn't have a statistical division. Now, there is a statistical bureau in the Bureau of Education, and by the natural unification of those two great activities each would profit from the service which the other

Take the reading and distribution of publications. It is costly to duplicate the processes that go to the handling of this matter, from the printing to the distribution over the country; the things that are handled in the chief clerk's office; then there are various studies in which there is a definite duplication, which the research division will probably tell you something about. It is just plain good business sense to draw those activities together, so that the leaders in those various agencies could have the benefit of each other's experience, could have the inspiration that comes out of associating strong men together, so that they can discuss the policies and plans that they desire to work out.

I wish to present just one other point. In the development of the Journal of the National Educational Association and in seeking to bring the facts to the great body of teachers throughout this Nation we present each month one page of statistical facts, large facts needed to guide the American educational policy, and over the years that we have been working on that project at no time have we been able to get the facts that we wanted, simply because they did not exist, and even the facts that we did have we have gotten, in many cases, so late that they could not be essentially useful in guiding educational policy. Here is a table of the growth of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, a body that has grown during the period it has been supporting this bill from 189,000 to more than a million and a quarter. The membership in that body this year, which became known on April 15, is now in the printing office going into type to appear in the Journal of the National Education Association, so that we will have that for 1927-28.

The latest table that we could get on enrollment in the American public schools, concerning some 28,000,000 people that are in these schools, is published here and it is for 1925–26.

I wish, Mr. Chairman, that I might insert these sample pages in the record to show something of what the educational facts in a large way mean in interpreting educational needs and in suggesting some of the fields in which research and the gathering of facts is needed.

The CHẠIRMẠN. If there is no objection they will go in the record.

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(The matter referred to is as follows:)

Growth of National Congress of Parents and Teachers 1918–1927

(From the Journal of the National Education Association, October, 1927— Prepared by the research divi.

sion of the National Education Association]

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United States----118, 627, 645 98, 844 189, 282 401, 308 651, 133 967, 766 1, 133, 357 Alabama.

2, 549, 000 504 556 Arizona..

3, 675 5, 293 459, 000

9, 799 504

13, 026 Arkansas.

1, 200

2, 142 1, 923, 000

3, 798 4, 424

4,822 California

267 70 4, 632 4, 433, 000 21, 741

8, 498 Colorado.

23, 880
53, 047

79, 808 132, 229
1,074, 000

136, 785 998 Connecticut.

12, 385

15, 405 25, 888 31, 934 1, 636, 000

39, 178 Delaware

3,000 3, 280

5, 015 7, 624 243, 000

9, 099 9, 962

387 District of Columbia..

5, 414 9,698 11,011 540,000

9, 773 525 725 Florida..

1, 785

2, 960 1, 363, 000

5, 432 8, 752

242 265 359 Georgia..

1, 626 3, 171, 000

7,914 2,351

12, 417 Idaho..

8,000

8, 340 14, 184 534, 000

23, 882 33, 040

190 821 Illinois.

2, 159 3, 846 7, 296, 000

5, 174

4, 340 Indiana.

6, 192 11, 765 27,023 54, 007 74, 154 3, 150,000

92, 645 709 Iowa.

3,556 11, 238 16, 427 2, 425, 000

24, 832 1, 676

26, 583 Kansas.

2,808 | 16, 640

25, 126 1, 828,000

35, 059 44, 609 Kentucky.

4, 290 8, 608 17, 383 2, 538, 000

21, 156 18,714 Louisiana.

16, 424
12, 255

16,000 15, 817
1, 934, 000

19, 589

404 Maine..

155 967 793, 000

3,550 674

3,513 Maryland..

1,083 1, 126 1, 597,000

1, 945 598

4,056

758 Massachusetts.

2, 172 6, 009 4, 242, 000

5, 636 8,176 Michigan...

6,057 7, 270

9, 733

10, 397 4, 490,000

11, 844 12, 918

106 Minnesota..

4, 640

18, 485 40, 567 2,686, 000

57,885 60, 717 Mississippi.

1, 558 12, 551 1, 790, 618

19, 282 1, 159

21, 870 Missouri.

1, 518 3, 195 10, 504 3, 510,000 7,745 16,788 39, 157

11, 388 11, 306 Montana 714,000

34, 239 46, 939 774

60, 354

607 Nebraska

505

2, 946 1, 396, 000

4, 134

28 Nevada..

913 4,874 14, 142 77, 407

15, 193 New Hampshire..

444 455, 000

25 315 600 New Jersey.

2, 197

106 3, 749,000

2,857 3,732 New Mexico.

9,065

9, 674 21, 865 29, 114 392, 000

41, 464 43, 267

232 New York

754 776 11, 423, 000

2, 082

1, 650 6, 020 North Carolina..

6, 681

13, 704 24, 648 | 43, 781 2,897,000 230

55, 289 North Dakota.

1, 308
7, 631

10, 180 13, 711
641, 192 21

16, 037 Ohio.

1,472

2, 751 6,710, 000

8,552 920

17, 453 Oklahoma.

2, 310 22, 343 40, 027 67, 099 2, 384, 000

61, 438

9 Oregon.

580 * 7,617 890, 000

12, 752 1,500

12, 186

498 Pennsylvania.

4,052 11, 164 9, 730,000

17, 703 16,762

3, 283 Rhode Island

7,041

12,890 20, 150 29, 107 704, 000

44, 923
2, 129
South Carolina.

2,687
4, 013

4,787
1, 845, 000

9, 099 468

8, 279 South Dakota.

227 318

1, 796

3,844 696, 000 507

5, 223

790 Tennessee.

996

5, 039 2,485, 000

6, 350 3, 797

8,503

5, 190 Texas..

5,897 7, 792 5, 123
5, 397, 000
6,638 17, 128 21, 154 30, 608 43, 737

24, 101
Utah.
522,000

50, 001 Vermont.

500
352, 428
740

1, 173 Virginia..

1, 179 1, 296 3, 824 4, 855 2, 546, 000

7, 587

25 Washington.

1, 311 3,493 4, 532 1, 562,000 West Virginia.

9, 549 5, 586

8, 742 22,910 32, 158 33, 852 1,696,000 20

34, 475 Wisconsin.

231 169

2,041 2,918,000

3, 819 5, 327

1, 117 Wyoming.

2, 712
5, 384

5, 92019, 472
241, 000

19, 629 50 44 1, 226 1, 830 1,778

.18

51 .51 .30 1. 35 .81

63 1.72

.58 1.09 .03 .82 1. 15 .42 48

55 2.72 .92

16

40

15

39 34

4 22 37 7

356

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Obtain the figures for your State by reading table as follows: In 1918 Alabama had a membership of 504 in the National Congress of Parents and Teachers; in 1920, 556; and so on. The membership for 1927 had increased to 13,026 (column 8). At present, fifty-one hundredths of 1 per cent of the total population of Alabama, or one person in every 1,957, is a member. This gives Alabama a relative ranking of 38. Similarly read figures for other States.

Sources of data: Figures as to population for 1927 from United States Bureau of Census estimates. Those for membership in the National Congress are from statement of treasurer's receipts of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers for the various years concerned. The percentages in column 9 are obtained by dividing the figures of column 8 by those of column 2.

Members of the association will wish to give the figures covering their respective States to the local newspapers. Teachers may well make arithmetic problems from this page for solution in school. Such problems are also good lessons in civics. For example, what is the per cent increase in membership in your State from 1918 to 1927? How much would the membership of your State have to be increased in order to rank first among the States in the percent of population members? What per cent increase would this be?

The five associations having the largest absolute membership in 1927 are: First, California; second, Illinois; third, Ohio; fourth, Michigan; fifth, Missouri. Educational workers wishing to organize parent-teacher associations for their schools may obtain full information from: National Congress of Parents and Teachers, 1201 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C.

The parent-teacher associations of the Territory of Hawaii have been organized into the first territorial branch and for the year 1926–27 had 1,357 members.

This table is one of a series of carefully planned presentations of facts that are of importance to every teacher and to the Nation as a whole. They. deal with large matters that concern everyone. Among the fields that will be covered during 1927–28 are growth in summer school attendance, growth in professional and technical organizations other than teachers, number of graduates of teacher training institutions, growth in State and national education associations, and data covering enrollment in schools and expenditures for them.

Growth of summer school attendance

(From the Journal of the National Education Association, November, 1927—Prepared by the research

division of the National Education Association)

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Continental United
States..

845, 000 311, 480 217, 220 662 596 377, 462 247, 227 29. 2 Alabama..

15, 800

5, 736 4, 302 15 Arizona..

15 | 10, 913 8, 883 56. 2
3,000
975 873

2

2 Arkansas.

2 945

585
19.5

36
12, 500
1, 918
1, 639

8 California.

5 2, 726 2, 136 17.1 36, 000

40 8, 402 Colorado.

5,883
20
19, 422 12, 118

33.7
10,000

17 7, 236 Connecticut.

5, 563

8, 610 6, 248

62. 5 10, 536 168 22

1 3

975 Delaware.

873

8.3
1, 458
291 272

48 District of Columbia.

293

16.3 2, 824

42 1, 300

140 Florida..

2, 490

729 25.8 10,000

27 1, 419 1, 231 Georgia.

2, 112 1, 450 14.5

43 18, 200 Idaho..

4, 208
2, 347

6,564 3,778

20.8

33 4,700 Illinois

1, 443 1, 296

1, 399

1, 180 25. 1 45, 500 24, 536

29 15, 145 41 Indiana.

25, 512 12, 700 27.9

25 26, 500 Iowa.

12, 512
10, 524 25

15, 378
10, 644

40.2
27,000

7 8, 613 Kansas.

6, 059
19
10, 626 6, 562 24. 3

30 20, 300 10, 245 7,048 19 Kentucky

10, 619 6,858

33.8 16, 100

16 6, 254 Louisiana.

5, 486 15
6, 537 4, 561 28.3

23 11, 500 2, 461 Maine.

2, 059

4, 861 3, 530 30.7 6, 400

20 1, 520 1, 304 Maryland.

1, 606 1, 364

21.3

32 8, 200 2, 045 1, 548 Massachusetts.

2, 205
1, 428 17.4

39 26, 200 6,906 3, 183 19 Michigan...

8, 799
4, 425 16.9

41 30, 30012, 110 8, 161 17 Minnesota.

12, 883 8, 437 27.8

26 23,000 7, 160 3, 789 Mississippi

8, 102 4, 300 18.7

37 15, 600 1, 992 1, 570 Missouri.

2, 596
1, 707
10.0

15 24, 500 9, 772 Montana

7, 458
13, 561 9, 255 37.8

10 6,400 1,388

1, 162

7 Nebraska.

1, 493 1, 286 20.1

35 14, 600 Nevada.

8,570 5, 718 14

12
9, 051 0,018

41.2
825 145

6 139

1

1 New Hampshire......

130 88 10.7 3, 200

46 520 376

2
2 553

320

10.0 47 'The figures as to number of teachers in 1926–27 are estimates, based upon the latest and most reliablo data available; they include teachers, principals, supervisors, and administrative officers.

· The number of institutions in this column is that reported in the Educational Directory for 1927, United States Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1927, No. 1. AD institutions listed in this directory were given two opportunities to report. Of thc 662 institutions conducting summer sessions 596 reported, or 90 per cent. A complete report was received from all institutions in 27 States and Territories. The rank of a few States is considerably lowered because some of their institutions failed to report. Such States may be identified by comparing columns 5 and 6.

105682-28 13

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New Jersey.
New Mexico
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota..
Ohio
Oklahoma.
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee.

49

6 24 15 12 28 3 8 22

23, 000

1, 375 3, 350 1, 144 1,034 71, 000 31, 676 15, 978 24,000 10, 267 7, 862

9,600 4, 634 4, 297 43, 200 15, 438 10,091 19, 600 | 15, 165 11, 223

7, 900 3, 797 2, 381 57, 110 20, 885

16, 280 3, 600 474 369 13, 100 3, 933 2, 868

8, 100 2, 968 2, 378 17,000 8, 548 7, 615 37, 500 12, 901 8, 429 4,521 595 395 3,070 815 603 17,000 5, 968 4, 455 11, 606 5, 390 3, 873 14, 800 4, 256 3, 874 21, 600

9, 777 6, 903
3, 200 800 640
1.700 722

525
27,000
5,000 1, 006 950

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1,983 983

1,772 1, 346 33 36, 903 19, 887 16 10, 648 8, 152

3, 971 3, 573 28 15,701 | 11, 148 13 14, 206 8, 894

7 4,079 3, 079 44 22, 594 | 16, 740 2 514 459 6

3, 940 2, 355

2, 703 1,933 13 8, 489 7, 228 38 23, 252 14, 155

1, 900 1, 337

1,421 635 14 7, 742

5, 856 5, 951 4, 457 16 6,635 4, 922 14 10, 733 7, 349

1, 364 1,039

682 425 1 616 616 1 1, 111 1,000

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4.3 40.2 28.0 33.9 37.2 25.8 45.4 38.9 29.3 12.8 17.9 23.9 42.5 37.7 29.6 20.7 34.4 38.4 33. 3 34. 0 32,5 25. 0

2,3 20.0

Texas...

Utab.
Vermont.
Virginia.
Washington.
West Virginia.
Wisconsin
Wyoming..
Hawaii.
Phflippine Islands..
Porto Rico..

38 31

4 11 21 34 13

9 18 14 19

1

Read table as follows: In Alabama there were 15,800 teachers, principals, supervisors, and administrative officers in public elementary and secondary schools in 1926–27. In this State 15 institutions conduct summer schools. A complete report was obtained from all 15 of these institutions as to summer school enrollment in 1927. These 15 institutions reported a total summer school enrollment of 10,913. Of this total 8,883 were enrolled in teacher training or education courses. In Alabama the ratio of summer school enrollment in education courses to number of teachers in the State is 56.2 per cent. This per cent gives Alabama a rank of 2 in this regard. In interpreting the figures of this table it

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that some States offer fewer and less attractive opportunities for summer-school work than others. Consequently many teachers attend summer schools outside the States of their service. This and other factors probably combine to give a few States a considerably higher rank than is deserved and correspondingly reduces the rank of others. Many teachers now gain their professional advance in extension courses during the regular year. This table takes no account of such work.

Considered as a whole the table indicates a healthy desire on the part of teachers throughout the nation to improve their professional preparation.

Membership in professional and technical organizations

[From the Journal of the National Education Association, December, 1927—Prepared by the research

division of the National Education Association)

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1, 338

1, 539

2, 531

1, 244

Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado.
Connecticut.
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho.
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska
Nevada.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma..
Oregon.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Carolina.
South Dakota
Tennessee.
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont.
Virginia.
Washington.
West Virginia..
Wisconsin.
Wyoming
Alaska.
Canal Zone.
Foreign.
Guam
Hawaii..
Philippine Islands.
Porto Rico
Virgin Islands

2, 284 1,612 70.57

378 222 58. 73 2,212 1, 180 53.35 8, 363| 4, 203 50.26 1, 837 1,068 58. 14 1,884 1, 229 65. 23

256 148 57. 81 1, 813 549 30. 28 1, 452

700 48. 21 3, 122 1,784 57. 14

416 239 57. 45 10, 743 7,020 65.35 4, 251 2,671 62.83 3, 378 2, 362 69.92 2, 364 1, 556 65.82 3, 041/ 1,850 60.84 1, 991 1, 24862. 68 1, 037

785 75. 70 2,313 1, 259 54. 43 6, 187 4,248) 68. 66 4, 837 2,983 61. 67 2,823 2,053 72. 73 1, 702

976 57. 34 5, 806 3,270 56.32

525 269 51. 24 1,869 1,227 65. 65

129 91 70.54

601 489 81.37 3, 567/ 2, 24062. 80

365 260 71.23 17,671 10, 885 61. 60 2, 281/ 1, 686 73. 92 485

394 81.24 8,113 5, 240 64. 59 2, 524 1,553 61. 53 1, 176 551 46. 85 11, 140 7, 502 67.34

771 423 54. 86 1, 317

861 65.38 604 343 56.79 3, 128 1, 571 50. 22 6,063 3, 479 57. 38

505 357 70. 69

537 353 65.74 2,534 1, 846 72.85 1, 7811, 132 63. 56 1,75 1, 020 58. 19 2, 826 2,054 72.68 255 149 58. 43

56 21 37.50 127 110 86.62

11 1, 416 206 14. 55 45 15,800 1, 142 7. 23 44
31 443 114 25.73 16

3, 000
2,095

69.83 6 45

315 23. 54 24 13,500 765 5. 67 47 48 6, 745/ 1, 323 19. 62 34 36,000

17, 924

49.791 9 35 619 40. 22 2 10,000 4, 450

44. 50

12 21 1,339 390 29. 13 8

9, 900
1, 986

20.06) 24 36 171 75 43. 86 1

1, 450

802 55, 31 7 53 2, 415

656 27. 16 14 2, 650 1, 449 54. 68 8 50 1, 137 363 31.93 6 9, 500

2, 225

23. 42 21 40

323 12. 76 50 17, 800 671 3. 77 51 37 652 87 13. 34 49 4, 500 950 21.11 22 20 8, 843 1, 981 22. 40 25 46, 500 9, 303 20.01 25 24 3, 307 540 16. 33 4025, 800 6, 439 24. 96 20 13 2, 494 53 21. 57 30 27, 400

3, 313

12.09 37 1, 676

401 23.93 22 19, 600 2, 696 13. 76 31 30 2, 382 350 14. 69 44 16, 500

7.54 43 26 1, 206

344 28. 53 9| 12, 900 906 7.02 45 801 166 20. 73 32

7,000 1, 782 25. 46 19 44 2,118 472 22. 29 26 8, 900 1, 371 15. 401 30 14 4,954 1, 364 27.53 13 26,500 5, 415

20.43 23 27 3, 037

839 27.63 12 30, 800 10, 311 33. 48 16 2,613 620 23. 73 23 23,000

3,800 16. 52 28 39 1, 158

122 10. 54 52 16, 600 312 1.88 53 42 4,506 797 17.69 38 24, 600

3, 186

12.95 33 47 875 131) 14. 97 43 6, 800 313 4. 60 50 18 1, 5281 393 25. 72| 17 14, 400 2,602

18. 07 27 12 230 82 35. 65 4 825 684 82. 91 3 379 91 24.01 21 3, 400 460 13. 53 32

560) 14. 29 46 24, 100 6, 488 26. 92 18 342 113 33. 04 5 3, 350 286 8. 54 41 28 18, 473 3, 005 16. 27 41| 72, 200

9, 278

12. 85 34 5 1,585 311 19. 62 35 24,000 634 2.64 52

192 30. 53 7 9,600 508 5. 29 48 226, 485 1, 216 18.75 36 43, 200 14,587 33. 77 15 29 2,818 385 13. 66 48 19, 800

1, 565 7.901 51 1, 424 2011 14. 12 47 7, 900 2,877

36. 42 13 15 6, 784 1, 469 21. 65 29 56, 500 17, 650 31.24 17 43 515 143 27.77 11

3, 900

474 12. 15

36 19 989 169 17.09 39 13, 200 614 4.65 49 41 700 180 25. 72 18

9, 600 1, 188

12. 38 35 49 2, 040

328 16.08 42 16, 900 1, 126 6. 66 46 38 5,323 624 11, 72 51 38, 400

3,726 9. 70 39 10 527 138 26. 19 15 4, 650

45. 01 11 17 344 86 25.00 19 3, 200 330 10.31 38 1,981 441 22. 26 27 17, 900 1, 717

9. 59 40 23 2, 237 461 20.61 33 11, 900

5, 465

45.92 10 34 1,326 292 22.02 28 15, 000 2, 729 18. 19 26

1, 978 493 24. 93 20 23, 200 3,826 16. 49 29 32 268 107 39.93 3 3, 200 1, 133 35. 41 14 52 80 17 21. 25 31 200 163

81.50

4 120 95 79. 17

168

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225 905 321

131 58. 22
174 19. 23
166) 51. 71

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