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(4) Verify generalizations by controlled experiments, by tested predictions of results, by repetition of experiments and the gathering of additional data. Appraise data by coefficients of variations and of correlations, and by probable
Determine sources of error in method and apparatus, and evaluate by auxiliary investigations. State all assumptions and include them in the conclusions
(5) Report the research in full and subject results to criticism and verification by others competent to collaborate.
(6) Announce the results of the research to the general public for practical
The characteristics of the scientist.—(1) Sincere and open-minded; not diverted by personal interests; (2) alert and alive to truth, vital; not complacent; (3) poised; not excitable, hysterical, or melancholy; (4) discerning and thorough; not superficial; (5) accurate; not indefinite; (6) inventive and constructive; not lacking initiative; (7) independent; not suggestible; (8) thoughtful and persistent; not merely impulsive; (9) industrious and energetic; not lazy and dilatory; (10) executive; not haphazard; (11) purposeful; not led merely by likes and dislikes; (12) self-confident; not timid.
RESEARCH ON HUMAN BEINGS
A science is any area of knowledge which has been defined and assigned by common consent for intensive study to a group of scientists who by accurate and thorough observation accumulate a mass of applicable data which they classify and organize and on the basis of which they make and verify generalizations as knowledge constituting their science. Some of the human sciences are: Anthropology, sociology, psychology, physiology, education. The nature sciences are very numerous and new subdivisions are created when intensive research in a restricted area is inaugurated.
It takes many generations of scientists to mature a science by the use of the scientific method, cooperating from generation to generation. The evolvement of the sciences is a perpetual undertaking, the objectives of which are knowledge and the use of knowledge for human welfare, the maturing and perfecting of civilization.
All the basic principles of scientific research must be fulfilled in human research in order to achieve verified generalizations. A "survey” results in a description of a situation, a discussion of the same and advices for use in view of the situation, but a "research” to be positively successful has to produce knowledge or solve á problem, by verifying a tentative generalization or theory which has been gotten by induction from reliable data. Research work is the basis of human science as well as of nature science.
The characteristics necessary for success in nature science research are also essential to the human science research workers, and the intellectual immoralities listed as obstructions in nature research must be avoided in human research with even more care, since more dependence has to be placed in human research on the personal judgment of the observers and the reasoning has to deal with very complicated situations.
The human being a unit of life
A human being is a unit of life, and even though made up of nature material, differs in one respect, radically, from a chemical substance, a mechanical structure, or an animal, in that an active brain of developed powers furnishes this unit of life a self-direction which interferes with the simpler sequences of causes and reactions which prevail in nature science fields of research.
Causes active in prenatal life, in childhood, or in youth may not produce their effects on a human being completely until maturity of life has been attained and activities in adult environments are being carried out. Children are born into organized groups of adults—home, town, city, State, and nation—and are profoundly influenced during development in conduct and character by the culture of these groups. Dormant brain powers come out into full activity late in life sometimes; and there is apparent sometimes a group stimulation of action involving many persons. In national life the results of causes influencing one generation may not appear until the following generation is in control.
Gathering data in human sciences
Data in the human sciences can be gathered with reasonable reliability by using trained discernment in observations by the human senses. Any given research must be under the leadership of a specialist with knowledge and experience in the field of science in which the problem lies, and with research ability, Photography, the dictograph, and various testing apparatus can be used to assist the human senses. Interviews and introspections can supplement observations of actions, emotions, purposes, restraints, and urges. Verifications of data by repeated observations and inquiries are essential to reliability. Statistical treatment of data should be allowed only when classes of data are definitely distinguished and the amount of data is adequate and the individual items reliable. Data relative to many individual persons must be accumulated, classified, and organized as large masses of data, in order that adequate bases may be established for generalizations in the human sciences.
Human variables to be taken into account
1. Native abilities variables-mechanical skills, intellectual aptitudes, etc. 2. Physical make-up variables-size, height, weight, strength, race, etc. 3. Instincts variables, 13 centers in body organs. 4. Curiosities variables, 6 spheres through the senses. 5. Urges variables, 12 objectives-possessions, knowledge, honors, etc. 6. Characteristics variables, 92 in all—just, sociable, poised, etc. 7. Maturity of personality variables-physical, psychodevelopment, etc. 8. Personal experiences variables-responsibilities, love affairs, hardships, etc. 9. Information variables-observation, reading, conversation, etc. 10. Convictions and beliefs variables—religion, politics, morality, etc.
11. Personal interest variables-engineering, science, human welfare, fine arts, etc.
12. Environment influences variables-climate, friends, nation, etc.
It is impossible to isolate one phase of a human being's life from the totality of its life, and it is unscientific to conduct experiments on one phase in disregard of active causes and variables operative in other phases during the experiments
. Native intelligence can not be isolated from personal experiences, acquired knowledge, physical conditions, etc., for purposes of measurement. Comparable groups of human beings can not be arranged on the basis of "intelligence tests” alone, even assuming that these are reliable for the individual, since variables in curiosities, urges, personal interests, etc., are unequated by these tests of intelligence, and these variables are active in changing intensity and quantity as causes during the course of experiments. The method of “multiple correlations” can not eliminate variables which have not been measured and are unknown quantitatively, nor is it applicable when causes are not measurable mathematically, as is the case with human characteristics such as emotions and will power. The "effective inteligence" of an individual at a given moment and under the circumstances can be measured relative to standard tests, but the results will not distinguish from each other the numerous component causes of brain power nor be reliable for other times and circumstances. “Controlled experiments" after the type of nature science experiments are as yet impossible on the major human problems.
Collaboration necessary There are numerous human sciences, which have been developed in accordance with teaching and research requirements, but these have not yet been organized into a complete system for research work on human problems. The interaction of causes producing human conduct may be illustrated by combining the action of several pendulums in directing the motion of one central stylus. The innumerable variables active in the human personality are a set of harmonic pendulums all swinging at once, with varying speeds and directions, to produce the action of the individual at any given moment. These human variables represent even a higher level of complexity than mechanical pendulums, since a self-active brain is a part of the human mechanism. Because the human being is a unit of life and can not be divided into isolated and independent fields of research, it will be necessary to arrange for thoroughly organized collaboration among human science research workers, so that the interaction of causes within the human personality may be appreciated relative to all human problems-physiological psychological, sociological, genetic, ethnological, educational, etc. Collabo
ration among human scientists is essential to successful human research in order that knowledge of these many pendulum combinations of causes may be available during experiments on human problems. The different areas for the gathering of data which belong to the various human sciences should be defined, and basic problems chosen in each of the human sciences for persistent research-the collection of data, the classifying and organizing of data, the discovery of tentative generalizations, and the thorough verification of theories.
Verification in human sciences
Tentative generalizations must be valued merely as opinions until verification has been accomplished. Experiments on a small scale, carried out under trained leaders, on scientific plans, and prolonged for a sufficient time, under normal conditions and when real motives are operative, repeated again and again with uniformly desirable results, will constitute a verification of plans for human welfare. These small-scale experiments should be planned on thorough studies of the situations to be improved, and according to mental calculations on all the discoverable causal factors of human welfare.
(1) Carelessness in observations, "sloppy work.”
(6) Confidence in the results of research in disregard of weakness in proof and verification.
(7) Contentment with “discussion.” (8) Poor judgment in research plan and procedure. (9) Wavering interest, flitting attention, attracted by peculiar superficialities.
(10) Egoism allowed to crowd one to the invention of “new theories for personal distinction.
(11) Inventing interesting theories for the sake of selling them in books, articles, lectures, and conversation.
(12) Pride allowed to result in persistent belief in a theory for which one has been given credit.
(13) Formulating an hypothesis on weak bases of facts, and then becoming blind to facts in opposition.
(14) Emotionalism during research, “I believe" instead of “I have proved.” (15) Adjusting theories to popular likes and dislikes. (16) Opposition to proof of another's theories because of jealousy.
(17) Opposition to a theory merely because of ignorance and stupidity, “I can not see how.”
(18) Rushing into print with a report of research work that justifies no conclusions.
(19) Degenerating into a propagandist of an unproved hypothesis, instead of being true to the research purpose of discovering the truth.
(20) Cowardice in supporting a verified generalization because it is unpopular and conflicts with selfish interests.
(21) Impatience, unwillingness to proceed step by step through a research. (22) Indulgence in dense verbiage for the sake of appearing superlearned.
(23) Ignorance of the mechanism of instruments of precision, which results in their use when out of order.
(24) Popularizing tentative generalizations for the sake of personal publicity.
(25) Resort to the authorities, or to sarcasm and ridicule, against data, arguments and verifications.
Letters of advice are asked from all interested, especially covering ways and means for controlled experiments and other verifications in the human sciences.
CHARACTER EDUCATION INSTITUTION,
(Chevy Chase), Washington, D. C. Doctor FAIRCHILD. There are two types of researches. One is statistical research and the other is working out the solution of a problem. You take this problem for an example of character education in the schools. The problem of method of character education
is a difficult problem, and has to be settled by long, persistent research. In order to prepare the way for a reliable procedure, we prepared this circular about the scientific method after consultation with about 100 of the leading and most successful research people in the natural sciences—we covered the whole country by mail-and corresponded with some foreign persons.
In research there are four specific operations that have to be gone through. The first is the gathering of the data.
The second is the classifying and organizing of that data.
The third is the generalization; and generalization counts for nothing at all unless you go to the fourth operation which is verification. In all true research you come out to a conclusion which is proved to be true. That takes you out of the field of uncertainty. This outline of the scientific method is the basis of researches in the Department of Agriculture, or the Bureau of Standards, in universities, etc.
What we want to achieve is an educational system which is based on scientific research made under the Bureau of Education or in a department of education. We want opportunity for thorough, complete research work on educational problems. We can better the education of the country enormously by complete educational researches that result in verified generalizations--that is, in methods which have been proved to get results. We have spent on this research on character education in the schools about $125,000 from private sources, and out of that 10-year research has come what is called the "Five-Point Plan."
Here is a pamphlet from the State of Nebraska [indicating). Last spring, about a year ago, the Legislature of the State of Nebraska passed a law requiring character education in all the schools, public, private, and parochial, and the State superintendent was under obligation to prepare the plans for use in these schools. It happened that we had evolved this “Five-point plan” just about the time this law was passed. Therefore, when State Superintendent Taylor appointed a committee to gather plans from the whole countryfrom Boston, New York, and so forth—the State committee also found available this "Five-point plan," which had resulted from our $125,000 researches. In this Nebraska pamphlet you will find the product of our researches incorporated.
The CHAIRMAN. Pardon me, Doctor; for the purpose of the record you might just read the title so that we may know how to get it.
Doctor FAIRCHILD. The title is “State of Nebraska; Department of Public Instruction; Study in Character Education; Charles M. Taylor, State Superintendent."
The CHAIRMAN. When was that published?
The point is this, that by introducing into the Government work for education this complete research of solving education problems, the Federal Government would make contributions to the State departments of education in all the States. It is not necessary to solve a problem that is common to all the States, 48 of them, by research done 48 times, once in each State, It is necessary only to solve it once, by the Federal Government. You can solve it better by Federal Government research on the problem in cooperation with the State governments.
We organized this character education institution about 10 years ago. A gentleman living in Buffalo who saw the necessity of character education in the schools cooperated with the educators. His name was Spencer Kellogg. He gave $100,000 and after his death his widow contributed $50,000 to our work. We used the funds with very great care, and we got up this scientific method outline as a guide in our research to be sure we made a thorough, dependable research.
At the time we had eventuated to the point where we had a plan for character education, this law was passed in Nebraska and these results were available. These results have been used also in Boston.
We spent $30,000 on a children's morality code, to express what intelligent public opinion throughout the whole Nation believes ought to be taught to children.
We have verified that children's morality code in France. Our institution is in collaboration with the French Minister of Education, and this morality code is now published in French, and is distributed throughout France under the auspices of the French Minister of Education. It is also used in a Spanish edition in the schools of Mexico.
I submit that that sort of complete research work can not be done in any other way than under the organization of the Federal government, if it is to be of benefit to all of the States equally. It will not involve control at all except as you get control from having the facts just right, from having their research conclusive
In this bill (H. R. 7) is section 10, which I happen to have originated. The reason for section 10 is this, you have these independent chief authorities, the State superintendents of education who have complete authority in their states. They are the last court of resort in the decision of all practical matters in the schools. These State departments have their state boards of education which are the ultimate control over matters of education in the United States.
Now, the State superintendents have no scheme, no plan, no opportunity for consultive work together. We have 48 independent departments of education. We ought to create a council which would draw together these leaders in the 48 States, and give them a chance to consult together about what should be done in their own States. This might be arranged under the Bureau of Education but if we had a department of education and a secretary, it might possibly be done better. But if we had this consultative council, the problems that are really vital to all the States could come up in that council, and the results of Federal research work could be contributed, and the educational authority in each State could take these findings back to the States and utilize them there, because those who are in the consultative council have power. This Federal council is the only way we can get into a common center real power for leadership over American schools. No such power can be given to a secretary of education. He will not have an iota of power over the State leadership in the schools. All he can do will be to make the researches, distribute the results throughout the nation, arrange cooperation with foreign nations as to research, and so on. But with this council he would have opportunity to consult with those who have power in the States.