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The architect of this splendid structure was named Cloos,—the father of Nicholas Cloos, or Close, who was made a Fellow of the College by Henry VI. in 1443, and afterwards Bishop of Lichfield.

The Chapel was begun by Henry VI. who laid the foundation stone April 2nd, 1441; but it was not advanced to any great extent before his death; only a small portion of the north and south walls being built, and the eastern end carried up a few feet from the ground. The unhappy wars which disturbed the latter part of his reign, prevented the progress of the work. Added to this, Edward IV. his successor, pillaged this foundation without ever making any adequate compensation, depriving it and Eton College of nearly 1000l. per annum. He however proceeded with the building in 1479. From June 14th, 1483, to March 22nd, 1484, nothing was done, when Thomas Cliff was chosen overseer of the works by Richard III. It was not till the reign of Henry VII., that the outside was wholly finished. The stalls, painted windows, carvings, &c. were the work of Henry VIII.

The exterior of this building is exceedingly noble. The immense buttresses, necessary for the support of the walls, would probably have produced a very heavy effect, had not the architect judiciously filled up the interstices with the smaller chapels, which happily preclude the objection, and become auxiliaries to the splendour of the whole.


The interior is still more impressive than the exterior. The vast roof, unsustained by a single pillar, at once gratifies and astonishes the spectator, when he contemplates such a vast canopy of stone, which seems to hang like fan-work in the air, and suspend itself by an almost magical deception.

Its structure was so greatly admired by Sir Chris. topher Wren, that, according to tradition, he came once a year


it. The Chapel has two roofs, between which a man may walk upright. The inner roof of stone, already mentioned, is beautifully ornamented with tracery, and the ribs are locked with key-stones of very large dimensions, bearing the rose and portcullis alternately. Over this inner roof, is one of timber, covered with lead.

The walls on the inside of the ante-chapel are ornamented with carved stone of exquisite workmanship, representing the arms of the houses of York and Lancaster, with numerous crowns, roses, portcullises, and fleurs de lis. In the middle of one of these roses, at the west end, is a small figure of the Blessed Virgin.

About the middle of the Chapel is a screen, and organ-loft of wood, curiously carved, which separates the ante-chapel from the choir. erected in 1534, when Anne Boleyn was Queen to Henry VIII. The west side is ornamented with several lovers' knots; and a panel near the wall, on the right, displays the arms of Anne Boleyn impaled


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with those of the King. On a panel, at the upper part of the screen, is a fine piece of sculpture in very bold relief, representing the Almighty hurling the rebellious angels from heaven. On this screen stands a richly-toned organ, erected by Mr. Avery.

In the middle of this partition, through foldingdoors, carved in open work, we enter the choir. This, in the last century, was lengthened by the space of one window; and is, from the entrance up to the altar, paved with fine marble. On each side are the stalls. The back part of the upper row (which is for the graduate Fellows) is completed with thirty-four panels ; in fifteen of which, on each side of the choir, are carved the arms of all the Kings of England, from Henry V. to James I. ; the

of the two Universities, Cambridge and Oxford ; and of the two Colleges, King's and Eton. On each side the entrance are the respective seats of the Provost and Vice-Provost. Behind the Provost's stall, on the right hand of the entrance, is St. George and the Dragon, together with some other carvings. The lower stalls are for the undergraduate Fellows, Scholars, and Singing-men. Under these lower stalls, on each side, are benches with desks, for the use of the Choristers.

These stalls and the tabernacle work, which we have just described, are a proof of the decline of architectural taste during the reign of Henry VIII.; and by no means harmonize with the rest of the chapel. The panelling to the east of the stalls is


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still more discordant, and more plainly shews the gradations by which our ecclesiastical architecture merged into, and was finally lost in, the worst style of the Roman, from which it had arisen 800 years before.

The altar-piece was erected from the designs of the late ingenious James Essex, F.S.A. The communion-table is furnished with some superb plate, amongst which is a silver dish, representing, in bold relief, the Last Supper: two immense silver candlesticks, double gilt, also decorate this part of the Chapel. The altar-piece has been still further embellished with an inimitably beautiful and expressive painting of the Taking down from the Cross ; presented to the Society by the late Earl of Carlisle, who was of this College. The painting was purchased by his Lordship, when travelling on the continent, as the work of Daniel de Volterza ; but connoisseurs are of opinion that it is actually a production of Raphael, and one of the best, in the second manner, of that immortal master.

The Chapel is lighted by 26 windows, each nearly 50 feet high.* Twenty-five of these are painted in the most brilliant and beautiful colours, the subjects of which are taken from the Old and New Testa

* The fine imposed upon Nix, Bishop of Norwich, for an act of præmunire, of which he was attainted in the reign of Henry VIII., was appropriated to the glazing of these beautiful windows.-Bagshawe's Argument in Parliament on the Præmunire, 1641.


ment. The great west window is the only one left plain, which is not easily to be accounted for, as there is an Indenture extant, dated the 18th of Henry the Eighth, whereby certain glaziers of the parish of St. Mary Overy, in Southwark, bound themselves to glaze eighteen of these windows, with good, clene, sure, and perfyte glasse, and oryent colors and imagery, whereof the wyndowe in the este end to be oon, and the wyndowe in the weste ende to be another." The subjects of the paintings are expressive of the most interesting scriptural events, and are upwards of one hundred in number. Each window is separated by mullions into five lights, and these are divided, about the middle, by stone tran

In the upper parts of the windows the subjects are always taken from the Old Testament ; and in the lights immediately under them are representations of certain passages from the New Testament, to which those from the Old for the most part correspond. Thus in the upper compartments of one window is the Queen of Sheba offering presents to King Solomon, and Abraham performing the ceremony of circumcision; in the divisions beneath, the wise men's offerings, and the circumcision of Christ; and thus a peculiar correspondence between the delineations of the upper and lower divisions of the same window is observed throughout the whole. In the central light of each division are depicted an Angel and a Saint, exhibiting scrolls and labels, descriptive of the events represented in


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