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Hugh Broughton, the famous Orientalist,—died 1612.
died 1687. John Sharp, Archbishop of York, 1691. Dr. Nicholas Saunderson, the blind Mathematician; Lucasian
Professor, 1711. Dr. T. Burnet, Author of "The Theory of the Earth,”
died 1715. Beilby Porteus, Bishop of London, 1787. Dr. William Paley, Author of “The Evidences of Chris
tianity,” &c. Archdeacon of Carlisle, 1782,-died 1805.
This Society consists of a Master, fifteen Fellows, and forty Scholars. There are four Divinity Studentships, founded by C. Tancred, Esq. worth 1131. 8s. per annum each, and tenable till the M.A. Degree is due. Seventeen Benefices are in the patronage of the College. Visitors, the Vice-Chancellor and two Senior Doctors in Divinity, or if the Vice-Chancellor be of Christ's College, the Provost of King's.
ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE *
Was founded by Lady Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of Henry VII. It derives its name from the ancient Hospital of St. John, (founded by Henry Frost, a respectable householder and inhabitant of Cambridge, in the reign of Henry I. A.D. 1134,) which then occupied the site of the present College.
* The Porter's Lodge is under the great gateway on the right.
The Foundress, the most munificent of all Collegiate patrons, and in private life amongst the most exemplary of her age, was advised to this noble work by Fisher, Bishop of Rochester. Accordingly she took measures for the dissolution of St. John's Hospital, and obtained permission from the King (Henry VII.) and the Bishop of Ely (the Patron) to do so; and, besides the revenues of the old house, which amounted only to 80l. per annum, provided a rich endowment for the new foundation. But both the King and the Lady Margaret dying before the execution of the necessary deeds, Henry VIII. resumed the Foundress's lands, and refused to consent to the dissolution of the Hospital. Her executors now applied to Pope Julius II., and, after considerable expense and embarrassment, obtained a decretory bull, dated the eighth of the Calends of July, 1510, which authorised them to dissolve the old house, and to establish the new College. The Charter of the Foundation, dated April 9, 1511, having been granted, the building then commenced ; and by the care and great exertions of the executors, of whom Robert Shorton, who became Master in 1516, was one, the noble first court, which then constituted the College, was completed in about four years, at an expense of nearly 5000l. The College was opened in 1516, and a Master and thirty-one Fellows were appointed, the original endowment having been for fifty ; but the rapacity of Henry VIII, prevented this, as he had seized the greatest part of the Foundress's lands, and given in exchange possessions of far inferior value. These endowments have, however, been greatly augmented by successive benefactors.
This College, which is situated in St. John's Street, consists of four Courts, three of which are built principally with brick.
The east, or first Court, is entered by a spacious portal, with four massive towers of brick and stone richly sculptured, and in a niche over the entrance is a statue of St. John the Evangelist. This court is 228 feet long by 216 broad, and has the Chapel on the north, and the Hall on the west; in the angle, between these buildings, is the entrance to the Master's Lodge: the south side, somewhat to the impairing of the effect, is cased with stone.
The second Court is entered through the screens. It has a venerable appearance, and is more extensive than the former, measuring 270 feet in length and 240 in breadth. Over the screens, in a niche, is a figure in stone, of Mary, Countess of Shrewsbury, by whose benefaction this Court was built in 1599.
The third Court is smaller than either of the others, but from its height and lightness has not an unpleasant, though a somewhat singular, appearance. The Library occupies the north side of the quadrangle. This court is entered under a tower, over which is a convenient Observatory. On the west is a noble piazza, with the Students' apartments over it. This Court was built by subscriptions in the reign of Charles II., the principal contributors being Dr. Barwick, Dean of St. Paul's, and Bishops Gunning and Turner, successively Bishops of Ely.
The New Court,* which for situation is the most delightful in the University, is approached from the last mentioned Court, both by the old bridge, (which is surmounted by a balustrade adorned with the insignia of the College, the rose and portcullis,) and by the new, which is the more direct line of communication. This last is covered so as to resemble a cloister, with windows, pinnacles, and battlements. The whole front of this Court is 480 feet long, the width 180, and the height, to the top of the lanterntower, about 120. It is four stories in height, and accommodates about 120 Members. The side toward the river is the most truly collegiate, which is owing to its general simplicity, noble elevation, and bold embattled bays with their rich panelling. The front has many beauties, and may be said to exceed every similar building, excepting that perfect model, Magdalene College, Oxford. The general
design and plan, however, are more bold and i striking than the character of the separate parts, all
• Designed by Messrs. Rickman and Hutchinson of Birmingham
the ornaments of which are the extreme of lightness. The main front is broken by a projection of considerable extent with four large and lofty turrets, one at each corner. The roof of this portion of the building is surmounted by a very delicate octagonal lantern with flying buttresses and pinnacles. Between the two front-turrets is the main entrance, the arch of which, as of the other doors, excepting the cloister-entrance, is in the Tudor-style of architecture. There arise on either side the panelled work of this entrance, two slender buttresses which terminate before they reach the battlement. Above them are two lofty pinnacles. Between these buttresses the whole space is occupied by a slightly projecting series of bays formed by simple tiers of cinque-foil-headed lights; the intervening spaces being filled with panelled work, in the style of the 15th century, as seen in the altar and organ-screens in Gloucester Cathedral. The heads of all the windows are pointed, of one, two, or more lights. The wings end in gables, and those in very elegant niches. The cloister is adorned in front with pinnacles, and forms an enclosure with 14 pointed windows of two mullions each, headed with elegant tracery. At the back it consists of bold open arches, and above them a battlement much bolder than in front. The main entrance is decorated with a rich pendant roof, and the whole cloister-roof is groined.
The west side is very pleasing, but not equally