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stone, decorated with rude carvings, and inclosed with an iron palisade. The water is brought by a small channel from a brook about three miles from the town, and is conveyed beneath the principal street, by an aqueduct, to the Conduit, which continues always running through three spouts, supplying the neighbourhood with a stream of excellent water. An inscription on the north side records its erection, in the year 1614; and also that Hobson, on his death, which happened January 1st, 1631, bequeathed the rents of some pasture land, lying in St. Thomas's Leys, for its maintenance. The greatest genius could not have done a more important service to the town, or have taken a more effectual way to transmit his memory to a grateful posterity. The rents of two tenements in Unionstreet, were also given, about the year 1632, for the same purpose by Edward Potto, an Alderman of Cambridge. It may be worthy of remark, that one of the most general proverbial expressions in the
Dodged with him betwixt Cambridge and The Bull.
But lately finding him so long at home,
In the kind office of a chamberlain
Show'd him his room, where he must lodge that night,
If any ask for him, it shall be said,
Hobson has supped, and 's newly gone to bed."
English language had its origin from the practice of the above benevolent carrier. He rendered himself famous by furnishing the students with horses; and, making it an unalterable rule that every horse should have an equal portion of rest as well as labour, he would never let one out of its turn; hence the celebrated saying, "Hobson's Choice: this, or none."
The Market is abundantly supplied with every kind of provision; but, from the very great consumption of the University, the articles are comparatively dear. The principal market-day is Saturday; but there is a market every day in the week besides, except Monday, for vegetables, poultry, eggs, and butter. The sale of the last article is attended with the peculiarity of every pound designed for the market, being rolled out to the length of a yard; each pound being in that state about the thickness of a walking-cane. This practice, which is confined to Cambridge, is particularly convenient, as it renders the butter extremely easy of division into the small portions, called sizes, as used in the Colleges.
THE CASTLE, CASTLE HILL, AND RIVER.
The Castle, which is situate at the north-west extremity of the Town, was built by William the Conqueror, but was subsequently altered and en
larged. It had a magnificent Hall. The Gate-house, now standing, was built in the time of Henry III. or Edward I. The former made the ditch, still called the King's Ditch, which, after leaving Milllane, ran by the north side of Pembroke College, through the Botanic Garden, passing by the west end of St. Andrew's Church, continuing thence through King-street, and the gardens of Sidney Sussex College, to the back of the Hoop Inn, fell at last into the river opposite the south side of the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College. In 1294, Edward I. lay two nights in Cambridge Castle. Edward III. employed part of the Castle in rebuilding his King's Hall, now part of Trinity College. The stones and timber of the Castle-hall were begged of Henry V. by the Master and Fellows of King's Hall, towards building their Chapel. Queen Mary gave the other materials to build Trinity College Chapel, and to Sir John Huddlestone, who therewith built his house at Sawston.
Of the Castle, the gate-house of which was formerly the county gaol,* an interesting ruin alone remains. A new prison has been built in the Castleyard, upon a plan at once original, commodious, and extensive, and classified after the designs of the celebrated philanthropist, John Howard. The buildings are inclosed in an octagonal court, surrounded
The Town Gaol is situated on the eastern side of the Town, overlooking Parker's Piece.
by a lofty wall; the front next the street is handsomely built with stone. Near the Castle is a high artificial hill, which is supposed to be British, but all the ground about it has been adapted to such various uses as the custom or fashion of the Saxons and Normans successively dictated or required. Roman coins, from Vespasian downwards, have been found within, or near this spot. It affords a commanding prospect of the Town and University, and of the surrounding country to a great extent. Ely Cathedral can be easily discerned from it by the naked eye.
Cambridge, on the whole, is very favourable to health, as those who reside in it from the different parts of England can testify. Its general salubrity arises from the excellence of the air, water, and walks. The practice of inclosing has altered the naked appearance of the country, and given it a somewhat more pleasing and fertile appearance than it formerly possessed. It is however still capable of improvement in this respect.
The Cam, formed by several small streams, which unite about four miles above the town, flows near the base of the Castle-hill, and its course is seen for some distance through the low grounds towards Ely. It is navigable for lighters as far upwards as Cambridge from all the lower country, through Ely, near which it meets the Ouse, and at Lynn empties itself into the sea.
This noble and humane institution stands at the south entrance of the town in Trumpington Street. It was founded by John Addenbrooke, M.D. an eminent physician, formerly Fellow of Catharine Hall, who, in the year 1719, left about 4000l. to erect and maintain a small Physical Hospital; but the money (after the purchase of the ground and the expenses of the building,) being insufficient for the support of it, an Act of Parliament was obtained to make it a General Hospital. It was opened at Michaelmas 1766, and the number of patients annually cured and relieved, is upon an average 1000. The expenses of late years have been about 27007. per annum, of which sum about 900l. arises from the permanent funds, and the remainder from donations, private subscriptions, and the annual sermon, which is preached at the Church of Great St. Mary.
Since its foundation this Hospital has received many legacies, and considerable donations; and in 1813 a bequest of 70007. in the 3 per cent. con