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that has ceased. It hardly contains now more than seventy houses, which are of a mean appearance. It is one of the oldest post-towns in the kingdom. Matthew Paris, the historian, is said to have been born here.
CHERRY HINTON is a pleasant village, three miles from Cambridge, on the left of the road to the Gogmagog Hills. The chancel of its church is of the early English style, and of great beauty.
CHESTERTON is a large and pleasant village, a mile north of Cambridge. The church is a spacious building, in the perpendicular style, with a nave, chancel, and side aisles. The remains of a mansion in this place, formerly belonging to the Priors of Barnwell, is now used as a granary. The parish contains 1174 inhabitants.
CHEVELEY, two miles from Newmarket, is one of the seats of the Duke of Rutland, who generally resides there in the shooting season. It is situated in a well-wooded park, within which, near the Cheveley gate, surrounded by a deep ditch, nearly square, are some vestiges of a castle, the residence of its ancient proprietors. Population, 541.
CHILDERSLEY; a reduced village, six miles west of Cambridge, was formerly the seat of the Cutts family. Charles I. was conveyed as a prisoner here for a few days in 1647; and a chamber is still shewn in which his majesty was confined.
CHIPPENHAM PARK, near Newmarket, is the seat of John Tharp, Esq. who has effected many
great improvements on the estate. The grounds are laid out with great taste, and the lodges at the entrance of the park display much elegance. The mansion, with the exception of the following paintings, contains little that is remarkable :-St. John, a Madonna, a Magdalen, and the Trinity, by Carlo Dolci; Rinaldo and Armida, and a Magdalen, by Guercino; and David and Goliath, by Guido.
DEVIL'S DITCH. The eastern part of Cambridgeshire is intersected by several banks or ridges, and also 'by some deep ditches, which appear to have been boundaries against invasion. The most remarkable of the latter is called the Devil's Ditch; the etymology of which appellation may be accounted for in the name of Davilier, who held the manor of Broome, in Suffolk, by the service of being conductor of the footmen or infantry of that county and Norfolk, who were bound to serve the king in his Welsh wars, and had their rendezvous always at that ditch. This celebrated ditch commences near Catledge, and runs across Newmarket Heath, in a straight line, for seven miles, to Reach. The slope measures from 26 to 52 feet, and the width of the works is 100 feet. The earth 'that was dug out of the trench is thrown up, and forms a high bank on the east side, which is that next to the sea. This mode of disposing of the excavated earth, is, in the opinion of Dr. Stukeley, a proof that the ditch was made some centuries before Cæsar, by the first inhabitants that settled eastward, in order to secure
themselves from the attacks of the inland aborigines. Its antiquity is inferred from several ways having been cut through the bank, and the ditch filled up. These passages are mostly called gaps.
DENNY-ABBEY, in the parish of Waterbeach, seven miles from Cambridge, on the road to Ely, was a convent of Benedictine Monks, till their
possessions became the property of the Knights Templars. This order being dissolved in 1312, their estates were granted by Pope Clement V. to the Knights Hospitallers, who re-granted Denny Abbey to Edward II.—Edward III. bestowed it on Mary de St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke, who founded here a nunnery; and was on her death (which happened in 1376) interred here. The site of the Abbey is occupied by a spacious dwelling-house. The transept of the chapel still remains, and, with the refectory, is used as a barn.
GOGMAGOG HILLS, four miles east of Cambridge, are the highest eminences in this county. How they obtained their fanciful appellation is uncertain. On the top of these hills is a triple entrenchment, with two ditches, rudely circular. This is supposed by some writers to be British, and by others a Roman camp; but it was probably occupied in succession by both parties. Within the entrenchment, which encloses about 134 acres, are the house and grounds of Lord Godolphin.
LINTON, ten miles from Cambridge, is a markettown, situated on the south-east side of the county,
in a very pleasant spot, the grounds being more varied than in any other part of Cambridgeshire. The church is a spacious structure, with two aisles, a nave, chancel, and large tower. In the south aisle is an elegant mural monument of marble, by Wilton, erected by means of a bequest of 10001. left for the purpose by Peter Standley, Esq. to perpetuate his affection for his sister and benefactress. The number of houses in this parish is about 220; and of inhabitants 1678.
MADINGLEY, three miles west of Cambridge, is the seat of the family of the Cottons. The manor house, an ancient brick building, erected in the reign of Henry VIII., is nearly surrounded with woods and pleasure grounds, and from the road has a very picturesque appearance. Near the grand entrance is an ancient, but beautiful gothic gateway, ornamented with a variety of elegant carving. It was originally, the gateway to the public schools at Cambridge. The interior of the mansion is elegantly fitted up, and contains numerous paintings; amongst which are those of Sir John Hinde Cotton, Bart., by Sir Godfrey Kneller; James Craggs, Esq.; and William Stukeley, Esq. by Walker. The village
church, pleasantly situated in the park, is a small, but very neat structure, with a painted window
over the communion table, representing the Crucifixion. Some monuments of the Cotton family are in the church. The parish contains about 250 inhabitants.
NEWMARKET, thirteen miles from Cambridge and 61 from London, has long been celebrated in the annals of horsemanship for its extensive heath, which has been formed into one of the finest racecourses in the kingdom. The diversion of horseracing does not appear to have made any considerable progress in this country till the accession of James I., when Newmarket had probably some kind of a racing establishment, as this monarch erected a house there, which was destroyed in the civil wars, but re-built by that distinguished patron of the turf, Charles II.
The principal part of this town is situated in Suffolk, but as the whole of the race-course is in this county, we have included a description of it in the history of Cambridgeshire. Most of the houses are modern and well-built; and many of them, which have been erected as residences for the nobility and gentry who attend the races, are elegant. The town is also well provided with excellent inns, coffee-houses, billiard-rooms, &c. for the accommodation of its numerous visitors during the races. These diversions are held several times in the year, principally during the spring, beginning with Easter, and in July and October.—The houses are chiefly disposed in one long and wide street, partly erected on the gentle declivity of a hill. This town has been twice destroyed by fire. The inhabitants of the Suffolk division are about 1820; those of the Cambridgeshire side only about 720.