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silver-gilt cup, the gift of the foundress : around it are the following singular inscriptions :
sayn denes yt. es me dre
“ V. M.
William Sawtree, minister of St. Margaret's, Lynn, Martyr.. Nicholas Ridley, Master, Bishop of London, 1550, suffered
martyrdom with Latimer, at Oxford, 1555.t John Rogers, the first martyr in Queen Mary's reign, 1555. Dr. William Turner, a celebrated Naturalist, Dean of Wells,
1568. Spenser, the Poet. Edmund Grindall, Master, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1575. John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1583. Gabriel Harvey, the Poet. Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester. Thomas Nevile, Dean of Canterbury, who built Nevile's
Court, Trinity College. Crashaw, the Poet.
" I shall only say this for the honour of that William Sawtree, and of Pembrook Hall, in Cambridge, above any Colledge either in Oxford or Cambridge, that Martyrum primus, which was this William Sawtree; Martyrum doctissimus, which was Bishop Ridley; and Martyrum piissimus, which was John Bradford, were all of Pembrook Hall.”—Bagshawe's Argument in Parliament, 1641.
† He was Senior Proctor in 1534, and took his degree of D.D. in 1540.
Ralph Brownrigg, Bishop of Exeter.
and Editor of “ Æschylus,”—died 1678.
1787; of Winchester, 1820.
This Society consists of a Master, fourteen Foundation and two Bye-Fellows, besides several Scholars. The Fellowships are open to men of all counties. Ten Benefices are in the patronage of the College. Visitor, the Queen.
GONVILLE AND CAIUS COLLEGE,*
Commonly called Caius College, was originally founded in the year 1348, by Edmund Gonville, rector of Terrington and Rushworth, in Norfolk, who began the building near where Corpus Christi College now stands. He did not, however, live to carry his designs into full execution ; but, on his death, left a sum of money for its completion, at the disposal of William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, who being engaged with his own foundation of Trinity Hall, removed the site of Gonville's, and, having fixed it near his own, confirmed the original endowment which had been made for the support of a Master, four Fellows, and two Scholars, and gave it the name of Gonville Hall. Between this period and the year 1557, the revenues of Gonville Hall were augmented by many donations, and in that year John Caius,* M.D. Warden of the Hall, and Physician to Queen Mary, procured a new charter of incorporation, by which its name was changed to Gonville and Caius College. He likewise endowed it with several manors; doubled the number of Fellows;
* The Porter's Lodge is in the first Court on the left.
built a new court, and three remarkable gates from the designs of John of Padua. These gates are the first specimens of the kind erected in Great Britain ; and, since the destruction of old Somerset-House, the only works of that architect remaining in our island. They were intended to inculcate that moral lesson of the wise man, “Before Honour cometh Humility.”
* This erudite scholar was born at Norwich in the year 1510, and became student when very young in Gonville Hall, whence he went to Italy, and studied physic in the University of Padua, under the famous Baptista Mantuanus, of Verona. Here he delivered Greek Lectures, and wrote and translated many esteemed medical treatises. Returning to England in 1551, he greatly exerted himself to allay the ravages of the sweating sickness, and about five years after published the history of that dreadful disorder, in Latin. He then applied himself to the erection of his College, and laboured with much anxiety to effect its complete establishment. He was successively physician to Edward VI. and to Queens Mary and Elizabeth. In the year 1568 he published his work “De Antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiæ.” He also wrote a treatise “De Canibus,” and several other valuable works, being equally eminent as a Critic and Antiquary. He died in 1573.
Caius College is situated north of the SenateHouse, and consists of three Courts, which are entered by the three gates erected by Dr. Caius. The first, which is next the street, is in a very simple style, with this inscription
“HUMILITATIS.”—The Gate of Humility. The second, is a noble portico in the middle of the College; it has two inscriptions : on one side is written
“ VIRTUTIS.”—The Gate of Virtue ;
and on the other side
“ Jo. Caius Posuit Sapientiæ." John Caius built this in honour of Wisdom. The third, leading to the Schools and SenateHouse, is more ornamented, exhibiting specimens of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. This is inscribed
“ HONORIS.”—The Gate of Honour,
which it seems to have been the opinion of the Doctor, all who pass this gate to take their degree should attain. In the plan of these three gates, we may easily perceive a regular climax of moral consequences.
There is one circumstance in the history of this last portal, which was only recently observed, namely, that the front facing the Schools was evidently constructed after the plan of the ARCH OF HADRIAN AT ATHENS; which may be seen by reference to Stuart's Antiquities of Athens.* The design wid borrowed by John of Padua, from the Atheni All structure, although there are points, perhaps, in which a difference
be observed. The range of a column and pilaster on each side of the arch is precisely after the Athenian model; and possibly the Niches which are above, exhibit the form of the Grecian building as it existed prior to the time when Stuart visited Greece; for they do not appear in his first plate, representing the building according to the state in which he found it.
The Court next the street, called the Tree-court, is a neat small building with trees planted in the front. The one next the Senate-House is larger; having the Chapel on the north, and the apartments of the students, built with stone, on the east and west. The third, or Fellows' Court, is in a more modern style, cased with stone, and sashed; and forms a handsome quadrangle.
The Chapel is small, but beautiful; and is handsomely fitted up with wainscotting of Norway oak, neatly carved. On each side of the entrance, are seats for the Master and President, and over them a gallery for the Master's family. The altar is adorned with a painting of the Annunciation, by Ritz, after Carlo Maratti.
On the north wall, is the monument of Dr. Caius, whose body lies in a sarcophagus, under a canopy,
* Vol. III. chap. iii. Plate 4, Lond. 1794.