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The following table shows the per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and race:

TABLE 444.-Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Of the 6,930 male employees shown in the above table the greatest proportion in any one group are from 35 to 44 years of age, the next highest proportion are from 25 to 29, followed by those who are from. 30 to 34 and from 20 to 24 years of age. A very small proportion are 55 years of age or over.

Among the employees who are native-born of foreign father by far the highest per cent is shown for those who are from 14 to 19 years of age. The native-born whites of native father show slightly over 50 per cent who are from 14 to 29 years of age, the foreign-born employees show slightly over 40 per cent, while the negro employees who are native-born of native father show less than 30 per cent from 14 to 29 years of age.

The employees who are native-born negroes of native father show the highest per cent who are from 30 to 54 years of age, followed by the foreign-born, the native-born whites of native father, and the native-born of foreign father, in the order named. The last mentioned nativity group shows very small proportions who are of the above mentioned age. Of these classes the negro employees show the highest per cent who are 55 years of age or over, followed by the

foreign-born employees, native-born whites of native father, and native-born of foreign father, in the order named.

Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father those whose fathers were born in Italy show the highest per cent who are from 14 to 19 years of age, and those whose fathers were born in Ireland the smallest per cent. The employees whose fathers were born in Ireland show the highest per cent who are from 45 to 54 years of age, and those whose fathers were born in Germany the highest per cent 55 years of age or over. None of the employees whose fathers were born in Scotland are 55 years of age or over, and none of those whose fathers were born in Italy are 35 years of age or over.

Of the foreign-born employees none of the Irish are under 20 years of age, and the Scotch show very small proportions under this age. It will be further noted that the proportion of employees who are from northern Europe and who are 45 years of age or over is higher than that of the employees in these age groups from southern and eastern Europe.

CHAPTER VII.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Americanization-Immigrant churches-Societies and fraternal orders-Savings and investments-Ownership of homes-Money sent abroad-School facilities and attendance Status of children in the households studied-Interest in political and civic affairs in Oklahoma and Kansas-Citizenship in the Southwest-Ability to speak English-Text Tables 445 to 458 and General Tables 191 to 199].

AMERICANIZATION.

The English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh throughout the Southwest are thoroughly Americanized. Most of them have been in the coal fields a number of years and are permanent residents. Even those who have been in this country only a short time have adopted American customs. They mingle freely with the natives, show much interest in all public questions, and take a prominent part in all elections. There is no ill feeling between these races and the Americans, and as soon as they come to a locality they are received and treated as friends and neighbors. They do not make any attempt at segregation but live in American neighborhoods.

With the English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh the conditions favoring Americanization are as follows: The knowledge of English possessed by the races, their popularity with natives, the ready way in which they adopt American customs, the lack of tendency toward segregation, the interest they display in all civic affairs, the fact that they intermarry with natives, that they send their children to school and keep them there until they have acquired an ordinary education, and that they make their permanent homes in this country. There are no conditions opposing the Americanization of the English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh.

After the races mentioned above, the French become Americanized more quickly and more thoroughly than any other immigrants. The fact that they do not understand English when they land in this country has held them back to some extent, but they have been well received by natives and mingle freely with them, do not form colonies, and are quick to adopt American ways. The French are also familiar with the republican form of government. Moreover, they seem to be very quick in understanding American business methods.

The Lithuanians, after the French, are quickest to adopt American customs and standards of living. The majority of them come to this country with the idea of making it their permanent home, and consequently desire to master the language as soon as possible. Many are property owners, and this fact naturally stimulates their civic interest. Many are voters and take a prominent part in elections. The children are sent to school and are encouraged at home to attend regularly and master their studies. The second generation is thoroughly Americanized, and many of the race have intermarried with natives,

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which tends to make their assimilation more complete. The principal obstacle against Americanization of Lithuanians is their tendency to form colonies and segregate themselves.

North Italians are held in higher estimation by the natives than Italians from the southern part of Italy. Consequently the North Italians are given a better opportunity to become Americanized, as Americans associate with them to some extent. The North Italian seems to be quicker to grasp American customs, and more of them come to this country with the idea of making it their permanent home, and so are more ready to learn English. Even taking into consideration these facts, however, the North Italians are slow to fall into the ways of the country and show little interest in public affairs. They are usually strongly influenced by a few leaders, are slow to take advantage of their opportunities, and seem to be suspicious of Americans.

The South Italians are slow in becoming Americanized and many in the coal regions who have been in this country from fifteen to twenty years are scarcely able to speak English. They live in colonies, have very little association with natives, and show little interest outside of their own immediate neighborhood. They are suspicious of Americans, do not trust their money to the banks, and trade at American shops as little as possible. They are making little progress toward Americanization. Each year the South Italians are investing more money in homes and real estate, and in becoming property owners, they are naturally led to take more interest in civic affairs. Even after the South Italian, however, has made his permanent home in the Southwest, he seems to make little effort to adopt American ways. He does not encourage his children in attending school but takes them away at an early age, thus preventing the second generation from having the opportunity of becoming assimilated. The children hear only Italian spoken in the colony and in the home, and their only opportunity to learn English is at school.

The Poles, Slovaks, and Magyars are almost as backward as South Italians, but are more popular with natives. They are very slow in learning to speak English and associate little with people outside of their own races. No civic interest is shown and a very small percentage are naturalized. The second generation of these races, however, makes very much better progress than the South Italian and is slowly becoming Americanized. These races also are less segregated and less clannish than the South Italian, and consequently have more opportunity to associate with the natives. Most of them go to Kansas and Oklahoma with the intention of remaining.

Mexicans show less progress than any other immigrants. They have adopted no American ideas or customs, but live as they do in their own country. Although many of the Mexicans in the coal mines of Oklahoma were born in the United States, they are little nearer Americanization than those directly from Mexico. Few of them speak English or show any civic interest and very few are permanent residents. The majority of the Mexicans are migratory, moving from one coal mine to another and never working long in any locality. They are heartily disliked by natives and there is no association between the races. Though they do not live in colonies and are not segregated at work, there is very strong racial prejudice on the part

of Mexicans against Americans. They do not send their children to school, and thus deprive them of opportunities for Americanization. Most of the Mexican immigrants in the district are thriftless and receive little encouragement from employers. Length of residence in the United States has no effect upon their mode of living and they are making little progress.

IMMIGRANT CHURCHES.

The mining localities of Kansas and Oklahoma have numerous. churches including several denominations. With the exception of the English, Scotch, and Welsh, immigrants attend the Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic churches. The Greek Catholic Church at Hartshorne, Oklahoma, is said to be the only church of this faith between St. Louis, Mo., and Galveston, Tex. In many communities in the coal district in Oklahoma there are Roman Catholic churches, and at Pittsburg, Frontenac, Chicopee, Weir, Scammon, and other mining towns in Kansas this church is also represented. In the smaller villages and mining settlements where there are no churches, services are held at stated intervals. No church, however, except the Roman and Greek Catholic does any work among the immigrants or makes any effort to secure their attendance. The Roman Catholic Church provides good schools for the children of its members; has various societies to which immigrants are urged to belong; supports hospitals; and looks after the welfare of the immigrant in every way possible. In one locality in Oklahoma this church has attempted to start night schools, but has failed on account of lack of interest. effort was also made to form classes among immigrant women, teaching sewing, cooking, and the general care of the home, but so little interest was shown that the work was abandoned. In cases of sickness or accident, the immigrant, if unable to afford the expenditure, is given free treatment and attention in the hospitals, and in case of want or sickness in the home, the church does all in its power to help the immigrant. The Episcopal Church also has a hospital in McAlester, Oklahoma, and immigrant patients are given the same attention that is bestowed upon Americans. At all of the parochial schools are libraries which are open to immigrants. Those in charge say that an adult never asks for a book and only in rare instances do the children utilize the library. A good many immigrants subscribe to newspapers, and this is about all the reading done by them with the exception of a few taking courses in correspondence schools.

SOCIETIES AND FRATERNAL ORDERS.

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The societies and fraternal organizations to which immigrants belong are numerous. A canvass of the Oklahoma district showed the following societies and organizations having recent immigrants as members: Slovaks belong to the First Catholic Union and the National Slovak Association; these societies are fraternal and beneficial. Mexicans belong to the National Beneficial Society; this society is a sick benefit organization. Italians belong to La Minature, Vittorio Emanuel III, and Christiforo Colombo; these are fraternal and beneficial societies. North Italians also belong to the Societa Piedmontese and Società di N. Italia; these societies are fraternal. The Poles are members of the National Polish Society, which gives

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