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By grades, the children of foreign parentage are distributed as follows:
Community No. 2 has two schools, the public and the parochial, both of which have immigrant pupils. The public school is of eight grades and has an enrolment of 480, distributed, by race of father, as follows:
The principal of the school states that the first public school in Community No. 2 was started five years ago. Prior to that time all the miners were taxed, by the companies employing them, a certain amount for school purposes. The principal also declares that an immigrant child rarely goes beyond the fifth grade. There is only one foreigner in the eighth grade, an Italian boy. Many children enter the school who can not speak a word of English. The children attending school are ranked in about the following order in regard to their progress: American, German, Italian, Irish, Syrian, and Polish. The reason assigned for backwardness on the part of immigrant children is lack of encouragement at home.
The parochial school has an attendance of 250 children, all of whom are immigrants.
The priest who has charge of this school says that the Lithuanians are the best scholars he has and are very regular in attendance. The Italians are bright up to 10 or 12 years of age, but from that time. show no interest in their work, and soon leave school, as they are not encouraged at home to remain. The Poles are dull and hard to teach, and very few can speak English upon entering school.
The priest further states that immigrant parents take their children away from school at such an early age that they have little chance to acquire much education. He has endeavored to start a night school, but little interest has been shown in the work.
The public school of Community No. 3 has eight grades, with an enrolment of 304. In the school there are 8 Italians, 15 Lithuanians, and 5 Poles. The Lithuanians make the best progress of the immigrant children, the Italians ranking second. The Lithuanians and Italians are as regular in attendance as Americans, but, in the
opinion of the teachers, the immigrant children do not make the progress made by the native children.
There is a good public school in Community No. 4, and also a parochial school supported by the Roman Catholic Church. Immigrant children attend each. The parochial school was founded in 1902 and has an enrolment of 180. Of this number, 30 are Italians, 100 Lithuanians, 12 Poles, 15 Irish, and 23 Americans. English is taught and the children are urged to master this language. The priest who has charge of the school states that a graduate is well prepared to enter college, but only in rare instances do children of immigrants go through the school, as their parents take them away at about 15 years of age and put them to work. He also says that Italians from 7 to 12 years of age have very keen intellects, but after that do not progress so rapidly as the Irish, Americans, and Lithuanians. The Poles are very backward.
The public school of Community No. 8 has seven grades and an attendance of 116 pupils. Of these, 20 are immigrants, as follows:
The teacher in charge of the school says that the immigrant children are better in attendance than Americans and make as good progress. She considers Lithuanian children brighter in arithmetic than any others in the school.
STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.
As regards the relative status and progress of native and foreign born children, the following table furnishes a limited but interesting exhibit on the basis of information received for 463 children in households of the Southwest:
TABLE 447.-Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birthplace of child.
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more born abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.]
Upon comparing the second generation children in the preceding table with the whites native-born of native father, it is seen that a smaller per cent of the former are kept at home and a larger per cent are at school, while 3.2 per cent of the native American children are at work, though none of the second generation children are so reported. If the foreign-born be compared with the native-born, more native-born children are found at school and fewer at home.
INTEREST IN POLITICAL AND CIVIC AFFAIRS IN OKLAHOMA AND KANSAS.
Little leaning toward the acquisition of citizenship or interest in civic affairs is displayed by the races of recent immigration in Oklahoma. There are a number of immigrants who have been in the Oklahoma coal fields for a period of twenty to thirty years who have not yet secured their first naturalization papers. Statements showing the number of first and second papers taken out in the coalmining counties of Oklahoma by the different races since Oklahoma was admitted to Statehood (1902) are presented herewith. The figures for Pittsburg County are as follows:
In Okmulgee County no immigrants have taken out second papers. The following number of each race have secured first papers:
Foreigners in Coal County have taken out naturalization papers as follows:
The number of each race
In Latimer County 40 immigrants have taken out first papers, but it is impossible to classify them by race. who have obtained second papers follows:
A very small amount of interest in civic affairs is shown by immigrants in Oklahoma. As a rule there are one or two influential immigrants in each locality who control the vote of their particular race, and most of the races usually vote as they are told to by their leaders. The Italians in certain localities in Oklahoma are controlled by leaders who are advocates of radical political ideas. The Lithuanians are more independent and are not influenced as much as the Italians and vote according to their own ideas. The French show much interest in political affairs, and the vote is not influenced or controlled. Russians, Poles, English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh take as much civic interest as Americans, and in many cases are leading citizens. Mexicans show no civic interest whatever.
In the coal-mining localities of Oklahoma information was secured as to the political condition of 612 mine workers of foreign birth, who were 21 years of age or over at the time of their arrival in the United States and who had been in this country five years or a longer period of time. These data are presented in the table following, by race.
TABLE 448.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees in Oklahoma who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.]
Out of the total number of 612 furnishing information 171, or 27.9 per cent, are fully naturalized; 162, or 26.5 per cent, have first papers, while 279, or 45.6 per cent, have neither first nor second. papers. These proportions indicate, as already pointed out, that little interest is taken in civic affairs by the foreign-born mine workers. Out of a total of 183 North Italians reporting, 35 have full naturalization papers, 66 have first papers, and 82, or 44.8 per cent, have neither first nor second papers. In numbers the Poles rank second to the North Italians. Out of a total of 73 of this race reporting only 9 have full naturalization papers, 14 have first papers only, and 50, or 68.5 per cent, have neither first nor second papers. Less interest as regards naturalization is manifested by the Polish than by any of the other races in this field except the Mexican. Following the Poles in numbers come the Lithuanians. Out of a total of 47 persons of this race reporting, 17 have full naturalization papers, 11 have first papers only, and 19 have neither first nor second papers. The Mexicans are next in the order of numbers. Out of a total of 43 persons 38, or 88.4 per cent, have neither first nor second papers. Four persons out of the total number are fully naturalized and one has taken out first papers. Forty Russians are included in the tabulation. Out of this total number 24, or 60 per cent, have neither first nor second papers, 7 have full naturalization papers, and 9 have first papers only. Among persons having neither first nor second naturalization papers, the Russians rank next to the Mexicans and the Poles. Of a total of 36 South Italians, 5 have full naturalization