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TABLE 455.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The above table shows that, of a total of 937 individuals reporting complete data, a much larger proportion who can speak English is shown by those who were under 14 years of age than by those who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, 70.3 per cent as against 36.4 per cent.

Of the various races, it will be seen that the largest proportion who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States and who can speak English is shown by the Lithuanians, followed by the North Italians and Croatians: while the largest proportion who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, and who can speak English, is shown by the Croatians, followed by the Slovaks and Lithuanians. The Mexicans show the smallest proportion of both those under 14 years of age and 14. years of age or over at time of coming to the United States who can speak English.

The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over in the households studied, who speak English, years in the United States and race of individual:

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TABLE 456.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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Of a total of 937 individuals reporting complete data, it will be seen that those with a period of residence in the United States of ten years or over show the largest proportion, or 65.3 per cent, who can speak English, while those with a period of residence under five years show the smallest, or 21.6 per cent.

The largest proportion who can speak English is shown by those of each race with a period of residence of ten years or over, the percentages ranging from 100 as shown by the Croatians to 23.9 as shown by the Mexicans; while the smallest is shown by those with a period of residence of under five years, the percentages ranging from 54.2 as shown by the Croatians to zero per cent as shown by the Mexicans. It is clearly shown that as the period of residence increases so does the proportion who can speak English, the most noticeable increase being shown by the Poles and Slovaks.

The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race:

TABLE 457.--Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Upon information secured from 3,482 foreign-born males in the Southwest, it will be noted that, of those under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States, 95.7 per cent can now speak English, as compared with 66.8 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over. The most interesting feature of the above table is that 100 per cent of the Lithuanians, Russians, Slovaks, and Slovenians, who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to this country, are at present able to speak English. Following the abovementioned races are the North Italians, Germans, French, South Italians, Poles, and Mexicans, in the order named, the Mexicans showing the smallest proportion, or only 87.5 per cent, of those under 14 years of age upon their arrival in the United States able at present to use the English language. That the children of some races are quicker than others in acquiring a knowledge of English is apparent from the above comparison and is probably due to the fact that the

children of certain races associate more freely with the children of native Americans than do the children of other races.

On the other hand, of those over 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States, the Germans, reporting 89.2 per cent, show a larger proportion than any other race who speak English at the present time. Following the Germans, closely, are the Lithuanians, who seem to acquire a knowledge of English more readily than the other races of recent immigration. The Mexicans, although reporting only 71.9 per cent of those 14 years of age or over at time of arrival in the United States who speak English, compare favorably with the other races, the proportions of which range from 69.7 per cent of the Russians to 60.8 per cent of the North Italians.

The relation between different periods of residence in the United States and the ability to speak English is shown by the following, based on data from 3,482 individual mine workers.

TABLE 458.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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It is evident from the preceding table that of those races with a residence in the United States under five years, 43 per cent can speak English, as compared with 77.4 per cent who have resided here between five and nine years, and 91.1 per cent with a residence of ten years or over. Over two-thirds, or 67.9 per cent, of the Mexicans residing in the United States under five years can speak English, while the Germans report 62.9 per cent, and the Lithuanians 79.3 per cent, the Lithuanians reporting the largest per cent for this period of residence. The next highest per cent is shown by the French, 51.9 per cent, followed by the Slovenians and South Italians, who report 44.6 per cent and 43.6 per cent, respectively. The other races reporting range from 35.3 per cent of the Poles to 30.8 per cent of the Russians. The Lithuanians who have been in the United States between five and nine years, as those with a residence under five years, show a higher per cent able to speak English than is shown by any other race. They report 90.5 per cent able to speak English, and the next highest, 87 per cent, is reported by the Germans.

The large gain of the Slovaks during this period of residence is of special interest, reporting, as they do, 85.3 per cent as compared with 34.5 per cent during the shorter period of residence. As between the Mexicans and Poles, who immediately follow the Slovaks, there is very little difference, less than one-fifth of each race being unable to speak English as compared with a fraction more than one-fourth of the Russians, and a fraction less than one-fourth of the South Italians. Immediately preceding the Russians and South Italians are the Slovenians, with 78.7 per cent able to speak English, and immediately following these same races will be found the North Italians, reporting 73.8 per cent able to speak English. The French, on the other hand, show the smallest per cent of literacy, one-third of their number with a residence of between five and nine years being unable to speak the English language.

Of those races who have been in the United States ten years or over, all of the Germans can speak English. The next largest proportion is shown by the Russians, who report 94.4 per cent. Following the Russians are the South Italians, Lithuanians, Slovaks, and Poles, between whom there is very little difference, each one reporting a fraction over 91 per cent able to speak English. The Slovenians, French, and North Italians report 10, 10.6, and 12.1 per cent unable to speak English, respectively. The Mexicans with a residence of ten years or over in this country report only 74.5 per cent who can speak English. This is a slight gain over those with a residence under five years, and a loss as compared with those who have been in this country between five and nine years.

It seems apparent, therefore, from the preceding table that, upon the whole, the greatest advancement in the acquisition of English on the part of the different races is made during the five to nine years' residence period.

PART V.-THE BITUMINOUS COAL MINING INDUSTRY

IN THE SOUTH.

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